9 Orbits Ion Engine Satellite Pair
9 No. 16 During Final Minutes of Countdown
The 16th SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle, and the 11th
Falcon 9 v1.1 variant, launched two landmark communications satellites into orbit from
Cape Canaveral on March 2, 2015. Liftoff from Cape Canaveral SLC 40 took place at 03:50
UTC. ABS-3A and Eutelsat 115 West B, the first two all-ion-engine powered Boeing HS-702SP
satellites, were stacked atop one another inside the 5.2 meter diameter payload fairing.
The first stage was not equipped with landing legs or grid fins for a landing attempt due
to the requirements of the mission. The first stage fired for 2 min 56 seconds before
separating. After a 10 second unpowered interval, the second stage started its Merlin 1D
Vacuum engine for a 5 min 44 second burn that boosted the vehicle into a 174 x 953 km x
28.19 deg parking orbit. The stage coasted for 16 min 52 seconds before reigniting for a
59 second burn that boosted the stage and payloads toward a targeted supersynchronous
transfer orbit of 408 x 63,928 km x 24.83 deg. The satellites separated in sequence
during the subsequent nine minutes. They will gradually maneuver themselves to
geostationary orbit, a process that will take at least eight months due to the low thrust
provided by the ion engines.
ABS-3A stacked atop Eutelsat 115 West B During
By dispensing with standard liquid monomethyl hydrazine
propellants in favor of highly efficient xenon-ion propulsion system (XIPS), Boeing
developed satellites that could weigh substantially less. Each satellite has at least four
25 cm diameter XIPS, each producing about 8.2 grams thrust at an average ISP of 3,420
ABS-3A weighed 1.954 tonnes and Eutelsat 115 West B weighed 2.205 tonnes, about half the
weight of a standard satellite of equal capability. The Eutelsat satellite weighed more
than ABS-3A because it was the lower of the two satellites and was designed to support the
weight of ABS-3A. This arrangement allowed for a standard Falcon 9 payload fairing
and payload attach fitting to be used.
The total 4.159 tonne payload mass was the heaviest boosted to a supersynchronous transfer
orbit by Falcon 9 to date. The rocket performed a static test firing on the pad on
February 25 with no payloads or payload fairing attached.
A 2.5 stage Soyuz 2-1a boosted Russia's new Bars-M reconnaissance satellite into orbit
from Plesetsk Cosmodrome on February 27, 2015. The 4 tonne satellite, designated No. 1L,
entered a 328 x 540 km x 97.64 deg transfer orbit about 8-9 minutes after an 11:01 UTC
liftoff from Site 43/4. Soyuz 2-1a flew north by northwest from Plesetsk, skirting past
Norway's northern coast.
Bars-M is the first of its type. It will maneuver itself to a likely 700 km sun
synchronous orbit. There it will capture wide-area digital images for mapping and other
purposes. TssKB Progress developed Bars-M, which uses a Karat camera made by the Leningrad
Optical-Mechanical Association (LOMA).
It was the fifth Soyuz 2-1a launch to orbit without an upper stage, not including a 2004
suborbital test flight. An additional 15 Soyuz 2-1a vehicles have flown with Fregat upper
A Soyuz U boosted Russia's Progress M-26M unmanned cargo spacecraft into orbit bound for
the International Space Station from Baikonur Cosmodrome on February 17, 2015. The 2.5
stage kerosene fueled rocket lifted off from Area 1 Pad 5 at 11:00 UTC. Progress M-26M
docked with the station 5 hours 57 minutes later.
Progress weighed 7.287 tonnes at liftoff. It entered an initial 194 x 247 km x 51.65 deg
orbit, from which it quickly maneuvered to rendezvous with ISS. The ship carried 2.8
tonnes of dry cargo, food, rocket propellant, water and oxygen to the space station.
It was the year's first R-7 launch, and the first Soyuz
U launch since July, 2014 as the long-running type is beginning to be phased out in favor
of Soyuz 2.1.
SpaceX's tenth Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket, and 15th Falcon 9
overall, launched the NASA/NOAA/USAF Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) from Cape
Canaveral, Florida on February 11, 2015. The 500+ tonne two-stage rocket lifted off from
Space Launch Complex 40 at 22:03 UTC and steered on an eastward track, rising into the
light of a setting sun for a spectacular dusk ascent.
The first stage shut down its nine Merlin 1D engines about 164 seconds after liftoff and
the second stage Merlin Vacuum engine began a 5 minute 44 second burn to boost the vehicle
into a parking orbit. After coasting across the Atlantic Ocean, the second stage reignited
at the 30 minute 9 second mark to begin a 58 second burn aimed to boost DSCVR into a
highly elliptical earth orbit. The target orbit was 187 x 1,241,000 km x 37 degrees. The
achieved orbit was 187 x 1,371,156 km x 37 degrees.
DSCOVR is a 570 kg satellite that was originally built by Lockheed Martin during the
1990s. It will move itself into a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian
point, 1,500,000 km from Earth in line with the Sun. There it will monitor the solar wind
and provide images of the fully-illuminated side of the Earth. The spacecraft will take
110 days to reach its final L1 orbit.
It was the third launch attempt for DSCOVR. A February 8 attempt was scrubbed with a
little more than 2 minutes remaining in the count due to a range tracking issue. A
February 10 attempt was scrubbed due to excessive high altitude winds. The rocket
performed its static fire test at SLC 40 on January 31, 2015 during the day's second
After the first stage separated, it performed a reentry burn followed by a terminal
landing burn, but a second attempt to land on a converted barge had to be abandoned due to
high seas. The landing attempt would have been more than 400 km downrange. An
initial boost-back burn performed during previous recovery missions was not performed due
to the need to assign propellant to the DSCOVR ascent.
It was the second Falcon 9 launch of 2015.
Europe's solid-fuel Vega rocket launched a small atmospheric reentry demonstrator space
plane on a 100 minute suborbital flight from Kourou on February 11, 2015. The flight
tested heat shield technology, hypersonic aerodynamics, and other systems during the
vehicle's reentry before a Pacific Ocean splashdown beneath a 30 meter diameter parachute.
Vega lifted off from the ZLV pad at 13:40 UTC to begin the VV04 mission. The rocket's
solid-fueled first three stages burned in sequence during the first 6 minutes 37 seconds
of the mission, with the payload fairing separating after the second stage burn, about
four minutes into the flight. The AVUM upper stage with its payload then performed a 6
minute burn using its KB Yuzhnoye RD-869 derived UDMH/N2O4 engine before separating from
the payload 17 minutes 59 seconds after liftoff.
The 1.845 tonne space plane, identified as the Intermediate Experimental Vehicle (IXV) was
was released from Vega at a 340 km altitude into a 76 x 416 km x 5.4 deg orbit. IXV
climbed to apogee before falling back into the atmosphere to begin reentry at 7.5 km/sec.
IXV was steered by four hydrazine thrusters augmented in the atmosphere by two
rear-mounted aerodynanic flaps. During the final minutes of the flight, IXV deployed
a supersonic parachute, followed by a drogue and the main chute. Splashdown occurred at
about 15:19 UTC west of the Galapagos Islands.
After spacecraft separation, the AVUM performed two
burns. The first may have accelerated the stage briefly into orbit. The second
likely deorbited the stage into the Atlantic Ocean.
The 5 meter long, 2.2 meter diameter IXV was built by Thales Alenia Space as prime
contractor on behalf of the European Space Agency (ESA). Italy provided most of the
funding for the mission.
Vega had stood stacked at ZLV for months after a planned November 2014 launch date was
cancelled just before final launch preparations due to European Space Agency and French
space agency, CNES, concerns about the planned flight path out of Kourou. It was the
first non-polar flight for Vega. On previous missions, Vega had flown north from its
launch pad. This was the first flight aimed toward the northeast. The delay "allowed
time for additional analyses of the flight trajectory", according to Arianespace.
Iran achieved its fourth successful orbital launch on February 2, 2015, when a Safir 1B
lofted a 50 kg satellite named "Fajr" ("Dawn") into low earth orbit
from a base in the Dasht-e-Kavir desert southeast of Semnan. Iran did not announce
the liftoff time, which was estimated by outsiders to have been approximately 08:50 UTC.
The two-stage rocket operated for about 8 minutes to reach orbit. Fajr was tracked in a
224 x 470 km x 55.53 deg orbit.
Fajr is Irans fourth satellite.
Previous successful missions, all performed by Safir boosters, took place in 2009, 2011
and 2012. Two unannounced, suspected launch failures may have occurred during 2012.
Safir is derived from Iran's Shahab 3 ballistic missile.
A Khrunichev Proton M/Briz M boosted Inmarsat 5F2 to supersynchronous transfer orbit from
Baikonur Cosmodrome on February 1, 2015. Liftoff took place began from Area 200 Pad 39 at
The Briz M upper stage performed five burns during the more than 15.5 hour mission. The
first burn placed the vehicle into a 173 km x 51.5 deg parking orbit during the initial
ascent. The second burn, starting about 1 hour 50 minutes after liftoff, raised the orbit
to 295 x 6,000 km x 51.0 deg. The third and fourth burns took place sequentially beginning
at T+4 hours 23 minutes, with the APT drop tank jettisonned between burns. The vehicle was
in a 475 x 65,044 km x 50.5 deg transfer orbit after the fourth burn, with a 10 hour coast
to apogee for the fifth burn, which aimed Inmarsat 5F2 toward a 4,341 x 65,000 km x 26.75
deg delivery orbit.
Boeing Satellite Systems built the 6.07 tonne BSS-702HP series satellite for Inmarsat. It
is equipped with 89 Ka-band beams for mobile broadband communications. It also has a xenon
ion propulsion system. Inmarsat 5F2 will be positioned at 55 deg West.
It was the 402nd Proton launch, and the 80th Proton M/Briz M.
H-2A-202 F27 launched Japan's Radar Spare satellite into orbit from Tanegashima Space
Centre on February 1, 2015. Liftoff from Yoshinobu Pad 1 took place at 01:21 UTC.
It was the sixth radar satellite in Japan's Information Gathering Satellite series, which
have also included seven optical imaging satellites. Japan's Cabinet Satellite
Intelligence Center operates the IGS system. The Radar Spare satellite was a second
generation synthetic aperature imaging spacecraft launched to backup existing satellites
2 Launches Moisture Mapper
The 153rd Delta 2 rocket, a 2.5-stage 7320-10C with three GEM strap-on solid motors and a
10 foot diameter composite fairing, launched NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP)
satellite from Vandenberg AFB on January 31, 2015. The 152 tonne, 38.9 meter tall Delta
lifted off from Space Launch Complex 2 West at 14:22 UTC to begin a 57 minute mission that
injected the 944 kg satellite into a 685 km x 98.1 deg sun synchronous orbit.
SMAP was built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Goddard Space Flight Center manages
the program. The satellite will measure global soil moisture and freeze/thaw states to
assess global water resources.
Delta lifted off on 227 tonnes of combined sea-level thrust from its three GEMs and its
90.72 tonne thrust Rocketdyne RS-27A LOX/RP engine. The three solid motors burned out 64.5
seconds after liftoff and jettisonned at the 99 second mark. The RS-27A first stage engine
shut down at 261.8 seconds. The second stage separated at 268 seconds and its 4.45 tonne
thrust Aerojet AJ10-118K pressure fed hypergolic engine ignited eight seconds later to
begin the first of two burns. Fairing jettison occurred at 295 seconds. The first second
stage burn ended at 643.6 seconds, leaving Delta and SMAP in a 176 x 701 km x 98.1 deg
parking orbit. After coasting over Antarctica and the southern Indian Ocean, the second
stage reignited over Madagascar at 3098 seconds and cut off at 3110.1 seconds. SMAP
separated at 3410.5 seconds, or 56 minutes 50.6 seconds.
About 48 minutes after
SMAP separation the second stage was to perform a brief third burn before three PPOD
microsatellites were scheduled to be released. The second stage would perform a
fourth and final burn at the end of the mission.
The rocket flew as Delta 370, but it was only the 339th Delta with a Thor-derived first
stage and a hypergolic second stage. An additional three Delta 3 rockets flew with liquid
hydrogen second stages. The remaining 28 "Deltas" were RS-68 powered Delta 4
rockets. "Delta 370" was the 721st Thor family launch and the 608th Thor family
orbital attempt. It was also the 98th consecutive Delta 2 success.
5 Launches MUOS 3
The most powerful Atlas 5 variant, an Atlas 5-551 with five strap on solid motors and a
five meter diameter payload fairing, lofted the third of five planned U.S. Navy Mobile
User Objective System (MUOS 3) communications satellites into orbit from Cape Canaveral,
Florida on January 21, 2015. Liftoff from Space Launch Complex 41 took place at at 01:04
UTC. The 568 tonne rocket's Centaur upper stage fired its RL10C-1 engine three times
during a nearly 3 hour mission to lift MUOS 3 toward a planned 3,817 x 35,787 km x 19.11
deg geosynchronous transfer orbit.
At 6.74 tonnes, the MUOS satellites are the heaviest known payloads launched by an Atlas
5, though the mass of several secret national security payloads launched by Atlas 5 have
never been published. Lockheed Martin Space Systems is the MUOS prime contractor. The
satellites provide narrowband tactical voice and data communications and are equipped with
a 14-meter diameter reflecting mesh antenna to provide links to ground-based users.
It was the 52nd Atlas 5 launch and the fifth 551 variant. It was also the second flight of
an RL10C-1 engine. The vehicle's second stage was the 200th Centaur flown atop a first
stage named "Atlas", though only 142 of those flew atop an original
stange-and-a-half ICBM-derived Atlas.
Falcon 9 Orbits
SpaceX's ninth Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket successfully orbited another of the company's Dragon
spacecraft on the CRS-5 (Cargo Resupply Services) mission from Cape Canaveral, Florida on
January 10, 2015. Rising on nearly 590 tonnes of thrust produced by its nine first stage
Merlin 1D engines, the 63.4 meter tall two-stage rocket lifted off at from Space Launch
Complex 40 at 09:47 UTC and steered on a northeastward track. The first stage shut down
its nine Merlin 1D engines about 157 seconds after liftoff and the second stage Merlin
Vacuum engine began a roughly 7 minute burn to boost the vehicle into a 206 x 353 km x
51.64 degree orbit.
Dragon carried 2.317 tonnes of cargo for International
Space Station Expeditions 42 and 43. The spacecraft likely weighed as much as 9.7 tonnes
at liftoff, including cargo. One unpressurized payload carried in Dragon's trunk was NASA
Goddard's Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS), a laser remote sensing experiment
designed to measure clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere. It also carried an IMAX camera
and tools for future spacewalks to prepare the station for the installation of the new
international docking adapters.
After about four weeks at ISS, Dragon will return to a Pacific Ocean splashdown loaded
with more than 1.633 tonnes of return cargo, packaging materials, and trash.
It was the second launch attempt for CRS-5. A January 6 attempt was scrubbed 1 minute 21
seconds before the planned liftoff because of a second stage engine thrust vector control
actuator issue. SpaceX said that engineers had "observed drift on one of the two
thrust vector actuators (Elon Musk identified it as the "Z actuator") on the
second stage that would likely have caused an automatic abort". A similar problem had
appeared during the rocket's initial hot fire test countdown at SLC 40 on December 17,
2014 but engineers had thought the problem subsequently solved.
That initial hot fire test was itself aborted after ignition due to a valve problem,
causing the planned December 20 launch date to slip to January 6. A second hot fire test
attempt was successful on December 19, 2014.
After the first stage separated, it performed another in a continuing series of SpaceX
stage recovery experiments. This time, for the first time, a landing was attempted on a
converted barge, parked more than 350 km downrange, that was equipped with a flat top
landing platform and position-holding capabilities. Also, for the first time, four
grid-fins attached to the interstage were used to help steer the stage toward a precise
landing spot. The stage reignited three of its engines to perform an initial boost-back
burn to shorten its range. Then, as it fell through the upper atmosphere, it fired its
engines a second time to reduce reentry velocity.
A third single-engine landing burn took place during the final moments of the descent,
designed to set the stage safely down on four landing legs that were to deploy just before
landing. The stage apparently steered itself to the barge and attempted to land, but it
crashed, or landed hard, on the barge and was destroyed. The barge itself remained afloat,
but stage recovery equipment aboard the barge was destroyed. SpaceX head Elon Musk
announced that the grid fins had worked during the hypersonic to subsonic velocity phase,
but that they exhausted their hydraulic fluid supply shortly
before the landing, which may have contributed to the crash.
It was the first orbital launch of 2015 and the 14th Falcon 9 launch.
Launches Weather Satellite
China's Chang Zheng 3A boosted Fengyun 2G (Fengyun 2-8), a spin-stabilized geostationary
weather satellite, into geosynchronous transfer orbit on December 31, 2014. The three
stage rocket lifted off from Xichange Satellite Launch Center's LC2 at 01:02 UTC. Its
liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen third stage, powered by twin YF-75 engines producting a
total of 156.9 kN thrust, performed two burns during the roughly 30 minute long mission.
Fengyun 2G likely weighed about 1.4 tonnes at liftoff.
It was the 15th CZ launch of 2014 and China's 16th orbital launch of the year. The launch
was only the second of the year from Xichang, and only the second China launch of the year
to send a payload beyond low earth orbit.
The flight was the world's 92nd and final orbital launch attempt of 2014, and the 88th
A Proton M/Briz M launched the Astra 2G communications satellite into orbit from Baikonur
Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on December 27, 2014. Liftoff from Area 200 Pad 39 took place at
21:37 UTC, beginning a planned 9 hour 12 minute mission meant to place Astra 2G into a
geosychronous transfer orbit. The Briz M upper stage was expected to perform five burns
during the multi-orbit ascent.
Astra-2G separated into a 4,139 x 35,748 km x 22.95 deg
orbit, close to its planned 4,163 x 35,736 km x 23 deg orbit. Briz M performed two
post-separation maneuvers to move itself into a 3,488 x 33,807 km x 23.48 deg
Astra 2G is a 6.02 tonne Airbus Defence and Space Eurostar E3000 series satellite that was
built for SES and launched under the International Launch Services (ILS) umbrella. It has
62 Ku-band transponders and 4 Ka-band transponders and will provide coverage to the UK,
Ireland, Europe, and West Africa.
The launch was delayed by about one month due problems with the Briz M control system
found during final tests that forced the rocket to be rolled back from its launch pad.
It was the eighth and final Proton launch of the year.
It was also the 21st orbital launch attempt of 2014 from Baikonur, five more than
second-place Cape Canaveral.
A Chang Zheng 4B (CZ-4B) rocket launched China's 26th Yaogan Weixing, a remote sensing
satellite, on December 27, 2014 from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center. The
three-stage hypergolic propellant rocket lifted off from LC 9 at 03:22 UTC.
China announced that Yaogan 26 would be used for "scientific experiments, land
survey, crop yield assessment, and disaster monitoring". Outside analysts
suspect that the satellite, like others in the Yaogan series, also has a military
reconnaissance mission. It most likely has a high resolution optical imager, based
on its orbit. Other satellites of the series use synthetic aperature radar imaging
The CZ-4B used for this launch was fitted with a large-diameter payload fairing.
Yaogan 26 entered a 485 x 491 km x 97.4 deg sun synchronous orbit. CZ-4B can lift up to
2.8 tonnes to such an orbit.
It was the 14th CZ launch of the year, the 15th orbital launch by China during 2014, and
the 90th orbital launch attempt of the year, world-wide.
2.1b Orbits Resurs P2
Russia's 22nd and final R-7 based launch of 2014 placed Resurs P2, a remote sensing
satellite, into orbit on December 26, 2014. A 2.5 stage Soyuz 2-1b lifted off from
Baikonur Cosmodrome's Area 31 Pad 6 at 18:55 UTC with the 6.392 tonne satellite.
Resurs P2 seperated into a 200 x 475 km x 97.285 deg orbit about nine minutes later.
Resurs P2 was expected to subsequently raise itself to a 475 km cirular sun synchronous
Resurs P2 is the second in a planned series of five Yantar-based remote sensing satellites
built by TSSKB Progress. Its primary users are Russian civilian government ministries.
It was the 20th launch attempt of the year from Baikonur. R-7 flew four times from
Kourou (with one Fregat failure), six times from Plesetsk, and one dozen times from
Baikonur. Eight of the Baikonur launches supported ISS operations, with four
carrying three crew apiece. The crewed Soyuz launches accounted for all of the
world's human space flights in 2014.
2-1b Orbits Lotos-S
A Soyuz-2-1b launch vehicle orbited Russia's Lotos-S from Plesetsk Cosmodrome on December
25, 2014. Liftoff of the 2.5 stage rocket from Site 43/4 took place at 03:01 UTC. Lotos-S,
a 6 tonne signals intelligence (ELNIT) satellite was inserted into an initial 242 x 899 km
x 67.15 deg orbit. The satellite will later raise itself into a 900 km circular
Lotos-S was assembled by Machine-Building Plant Arsenal on a Yantar-series bus built by
Rocket & Space Center Progress.
It was the 21st R-7 based launch of 2014, and the ninth orbital launch by any type of
rocket from Plesetsk.
Russia's Angara A5 premiered on December 23, 2014 with a successful launch from Plesetsk
Cosmodrome. The 773 tonne 3.5 stage rocket lifted off from Site 35/1 at 05:57 UTC, rising
on 980 tonnes of thrust from its five Energomash RD-191 kerosene/LOX engines. The liftoff
began a planned nine-hour mission intended to use four burns of the rocket's Briz-M upper
stage to insert a 2 tonne dummy payload into geosynchronous orbit.
Angara A5 was the biggest Russian launcher to debut since the Energia rocket for the
Soviet Unions Buran space shuttle flew in the late 1980s.
Angara A5 consisted of a five 2.9 meter diameter URM-1 (Universal Rocket Module) units
clustered to form a core stage surrounded by four booster stages. The core first stage was
topped by a 3.6 meter diameter URM-2 second stage and a Briz M third stage. Each URM-1 was
powered by a single chamber, 196 tonne thrust RD-191 staged combustion kerosene/LOX
engine. RD-191 is derived from the four-chamber Energomash RD-171 engine that powers the
Zenit launcher. URM-2 was powered by a 30 tonne thrust LOX/kerosene RD-0124 engine. This
staged-combustion engine was developed to power the upgraded Soyuz-2 third stage, and has
already been proven in flight. The Briz-M hypergolic propellant third stage has flown for
several years atop Proton-M boosters.
The core throttled down while the four strap-on boosters burned at full thrust. The
boosters separated about 3.5 minutes into the flight at an altitude of about 82
kilometers, falling to earth about 850 kilometers east of Plesetsk. The core stage
separated less than two minutes later at about 148 kilometers altitude and fell about
2,320 kilometers downrange.
After the second stage burned out at about the 12 minute
15 second mark (it fell into the western Pacific Ocean), the first Briz-M burn inserted
the stage and payload into a low earth orbit with a 63 deg inclination. Subsequent burns
moved the vehicle into an initial elliptical transfer orbit. The fourth burn circularized
the orbit at geosynchronous altitude. A fifth burn then moved the vehicle out of the
geostationary belt into a "graveyard orbit".
Angara, named after a fast-flowing 1,800 km long Siberian river, is Russia's first
entirely post-Soviet space launch vehicle. After a two decade long, stop-start development
program, a single-core Angara variant performed the program's first test launch from
Russian soil on July 9, 2014. That suborbital flight from Plesetsk Cosmodrome was made by
a two-stage Angara 1.2PP, heralding the start of the new modular launch vehicle family
capable of lifting payloads ranging from light to heavy.
Angara A5 will be able to lift 24.5 tonnes to a 200 km x
63 deg low earth orbit (LEO), or 5.4 tonnes to geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) from
Plesetsk with a Briz M upper stage. Use of a projected high energy KVRB stage could
improve GTO performance to 6.6 tonnes. Angara A5's LEO capability is currently only
exceeded by the RS-68A powered version of Delta 4 Heavy. The new rocket family is not
expected to be completely certified for use until 2020, when it will likely begin to
replace the long-lived Proton family. Angara will eventually fly from Russia's new,
under-construction launch site at Vostochny Cosmodrome.
Launches Kondor E
Russia's Strela orbited Kondor E, a synthetic aperture radar imaging satellite, from
Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 175 Silo 59 on December 19, 2014. The three-stage rocket, a
minimally modified UR-100NUTTKh ICBM (also known as RS-18B or in NATO as SS-19 Mod 2
"Stilleto"), lifted off at 04:43 UTC. Kondor E, weighing up to 1.15 tonnes, was
inserted into a roughly 500 km x 74.75 deg orbit at 05:08 UTC.
It was the third Strela launch and the second in two years. The first took place in 2003.
The more commonly flown Rokot is also based on the UR-100NUTTKh, but is fitted with a Briz
KM third stage rather than Strela's slightly modified ICBM warhead bus. Strela burns
storable hypergolic propellant, weighs about 105 tonnes at liftoff, is 28.27 meters long
and 2.5 meters in diameter, and can lift 1.7 tonnes to LEO.
Kondor is a radar Earth observation satellite developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya for the
Russian Defense Ministry and for foreign customers. Some reports suggested that Kondor E
was launched for the government of South Africa. The first Kondor satellite was orbited in
Four Satellites from Kourou
A Soyuz 2-1b/Fregat carried four O3b satellites into orbit from Guiana Space Center at
Kourou on December 18, 2014. It was the 10th Soyuz launch from the Soyuz Launch Complex
(ELS) since the site opened in 2011. ELS itself is nearer to Sinnamary than to Kourou,
French Guiana. Launched by Russian crews at 18:37 UTC, the 3.5 stage rocket flew as the
Arianespace VS10 mission. The Fregat third stage performed three burns to reach a 7,820 x
7,836 km x 0.04 deg, near-circular deployment orbit about 1 hour 52 minutes 25 seconds
After the third burn, the satellites were released two by two, with the first released
about two hours after liftoff. The second release occurred about 22 minutes later, after a
short firing of Fregat's Attitude Control System (ACS). Fregat subsequently performed two
more short burns to lower itself into a disposal orbit about 200 km below the O3b release
Two previous Soyuz missions from Kourou orbited a total of eight satellites for O3b
Networks during July 2014 and June 2013. Thales Alenia Space built the satellites, which
weigh about 700 kg each. The satellites are designed to provide low latency, high
bandwidth connectivity using 12 Ka band transponders per satellite.
It was the year's 20th R-7 based launch attempt, and
19th success. An August launch of the VS09 mission from Kourou suffered a Fregat
failure that left two European Galileo navigation satellites in improper orbits.
Tests Big New Rocket
India celebrated a successful landmark inaugural
suborbital test flight of its big new LVM3 (formerly GSLV Mk 3)
launch vehicle from Sriharikota's Second Launch Pad on December 18, 2014. LVM3-X, a 630.58
tonne, 43.43 meter tall two stage rocket topped by a dummy third stage, lifted off at
04:00 UTC on 1050 tonnes of total thrust from its two S200 segmented solid rocket motors.
The motors, which straddled the 4 meter diameter L110 liquid core second stage, burned
through about 414 total tonnes of propellant in about 148 seconds before jettisoning. S200
is the world's third most powerful solid rocket motor.
The 125.6 tonne L110 second stage ignited its two Vikas 2 engines at about the 114.7
second mark, a bit more than 30 seconds before the solid motors burned out. The engines
combined to produce about 140.7 tonnes of thrust by burning 115 tonnes of N2O4/UDMH
hypergolic propellants during their nearly 203 second burn. The payload fairing separated
at the 232 second mark, about 86 seconds before the end of the L110 stage burn. Burnout
occurred at an altitude of 126 km and a velocity of about 5,285 meters per second.
The LVM3-X dummy C25 third stage, an 18.3 tonne simulated version of the planned LH2/LOX
C25 stage, separated during the suborbital test. A few seconds later, a 3.735 tonne, 3.1
meter diameter simulated crew module named CARE (Crew module Atmospheric Reentry
Experiment) separated and performed a reentry and parachute recovery sequence aimed for a
Bay of Bengal splashdown about 1,100 seconds after liftoff, some 1,500 km downrange.
The successful test opens the way for an orbital test flight in 2016. LVM3 is
designed to boost 4 tonnes or more to geosynchronous transfer orbit.
V as Antares Stand-in
On December 9, 2014, Orbital announced that had
contracted with United Launch Alliance for an Atlas 5 launch of a Cygnus cargo spacecraft
during the fourth quarter of 2015, with an option for a second flight in 2016. The
flights would allow the company to continue working its ISS cargo contract while extended
Antares failure recovery efforts were underway. Atlas would carry Cygnus toward ISS
from Cape Canaveral, Florida's Space Launch Complex 41. Use of the powerful rocket
would allow each Cygnus to carry almost 35% more payload mass than previously planned for
its Antares launches.
RD-181 to Replace NK-33/AJ-26
On December 16, Orbital revealed that it would buy
RD-181 engines directly from Khimki, Russias NPO Energomash to replace the previous
Antares NK-33/AJ-26 engines. RD-181, a downgraded, export version of Russia's RD-191
Angara engine, would fly in shipsets of two to mimic as much as possible the original dual
AJ-26 behavior. Once equipped with two RD-181 engines, Antares performance to low
earth orbit will by improved by about 20%. The first RD-181 engines were expected to
arrive at Wallops Island, Virginia in mid-2015 to begin the process of vehicle integration
and testing. That first set would likely be used for a hot-fire test with an Antares
first stage on the repaired Wallops launch pad in 2015. A second set of engines will
arrive during the Fall of 2015, to be used for the first post-failure Antares flight,
likely in 2016.
Orbital expected to to complete its $1.9 billion
contract to deliver 20 tonnes of of cargo to the ISS by the end of 2016 using one less
Antares/Cygnus launch than originally planned - four more instead of five. Although
a pair of RD-181 engines can deliver about 45 tonnes more thrust than two AJ-26 engines,
they will be dialed back to the old engine's thrust level until modified first stages are
put into service to take advantage of the extra thrust.
Russia's 400th Proton rocket launched with Yamal 401 from Baikonur Cosmodrome in
Kazakhstan on December 15, 2014. Liftoff from Area 81 Pad 24 took place at 00:16 UTC,
beginning a 9.3 hour mission. After four burns by the Proton M rocket's Briz M fourth
stage, Yamal 401 was inserted into near-geosynchronous orbit. International Launch
Services oversaw the payload side of the mission.
Yamal 401 is a 2.976 tonne communications satellite that carries 17 C band and 18 Ku band
transponders. It will be positioned at 90 degrees East to serve Russia and CIS countries.
Proton first flew in two-stage test flights beginning in 1965. It was powered by
innovative staged combustion engines that burned storable hypergolic propellants
(UDMH/N2O4). With a third hypergolic stage added to create "Proton K" and
a fourth kerosene/LOX stage named Blok D, the fully realized 700 tonne Proton began
launching circumlunar Zond missions in 1967, following by Luna and Mars exploration
missions during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Proton orbited the Salyut and Mir space
stations and sent the landmark Venera Venus landers on their way, among numerous landmark
missions. It also launched numerous Soviet communication and navigation satellites.
After the end of the Cold War, Proton entered commercial service, launching Western
commercial satellites through the auspices of International Launch Services. Today's
Proton M can lift 23 tonnes to low earth orbit at the 51 deg inclination of the
International Space Station, more than any rocket except Delta 4 Heavy. With a Briz M
fourth stage it can place 6.15 tonnes into a geosynchronous transfer orbit that is only
1,500 m/s short of geosynchronous orbit, something that only Ariane 5 ECA, Atlas 541-551,
Delta 4 Heavy, and Japan's H-2B, can beat.
Although capable and often-flown, Proton and its upper stages have experienced persistent
failures. Since 2010, inclusive, there have been seven failures in 49 attempts - a 14%
Atlas 5 Launches NRO Mission
The most powerful Atlas 5 to fly from Vandenberg AFB, a 541 model with four solid rocket
motors and a five meter diameter payload fairing, launched the classified National
Reconnaissance Office NROL-35 mission on December 13, 2014. The 522 tonne rocket lifted
off from Space Launch Complex 3 East at 03:19 UTC and quickly flew into a news blackout.
Analysts expected the launch to orbit a payload bound for an elliptical 12-hour Molniya
type orbit. Potential payloads included communications or signals intelligence satellites.
The use of an Atlas 541 indicated that the satellite would likely be heavier than any
previously launched by the U.S. to a Molniya orbit. A previous launch of a
"Trumpet"-type sigint to 1,120 x 37,600 km x 63.56 deg Molniya orbit used a
less-capable Atlas 5-411 with only one strap-on solid motor.
The AV-051 Atlas was the first equipped with an RL10C-1 Centaur engine. The
Aerojet-Rocketdyne powerplant was a modified RL10B-2 that came from excess stock from the
Delta 4 program. To make the conversion, the bottom two extendible nozzle sections of the
RL10B-2 were removed and an improved dual direct spark igniter was installed. The engine
produced 10.383 tonnes of thrust, a slight improvement from 10.115 tonnes of thrust
produced by the previous RL10A-4-2 Centaur engine.
It was the 455th RL10 launched. The engines have flown for 50 years on seven different
launch vehicle types, including Saturn I, Atlas Centaur, Atlas 3, Atlas 5, Titan 3E, Titan
4A/B, and Delta 3.
AV-051 was ninth Atlas 5 of the year, a record for Atlas 5. It was also the third Atlas 5
of the year to fly from VAFB.
China Orbits Sigints
A Chang Zheng 4C orbited three satellites from Chian's Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center on
December 10, 2014. The three-stage rocket lifted off from LC 43/603 at 19:33 UTC on the
Yaogan 25 mission, reported by China's Xinhua press service to be conducting scientific
experiments and land surveys, monitoring crop yields, and aiding in preventing and
reducing natural disasters.
Western tracking systems showed an initial object in a 908 x 1102 km x 63.46 deg orbit,
consistent with the location of a third stage after lifting a collection of three signals
intelligence satellites toward roughly 1,100 km x 63.4 deg orbits. Such satellite arrays
use spatial diversity to determine signal source locations and are typically used to track
naval activity. Yaogan 20, launched on August 9, 2014, was the most recent similar example
of the type.
It was the 13th CZ family, sixth CZ-4 series, and third CZ-4C, launch of the year. Twelve
of the launches occurred after the beginning of August. Four were launched during
the past month.
CZ-4B Orbits China/Brazil
A Chang Zheng 4B rocket successfully orbited CBERS 4 (China-Brazil Earth Resources
Satellite) from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center. The three-stage rocket lifted off from
Pad 9 at 03:26 UTC. CBERS-4 was inserted into a 738 x 748 km x 98.55 deg sun synchronous
orbit by a third stage burn about 45 minutes later. The third stage subsequently purged
its propellant tanks to lower itself into a 478 x 740 km x 98.44 deg orbit.
CBERS 4 is a cooperative earth resource monitoring project involving China and Brazil. The
1.98 tonne satellite was assembled by China Academy of Space Technology. It is similar to
CBERS 3, which was lost in a 2013 CZ-4B launch failure. As a result of the loss, the CBERS
4 launch was moved up by one year from previous plans.
It was the 200th orbital launch attempt by a rocket named "Chang Zheng" (Long
March), and the 206th attempt by a DF-5 based rocket. Two "CZ-1" launches, which
orbited China's first two satellites, were performed by smaller DF-3 based rockets during
1970-71. Eight of the DF-5 based launch vehicles were named "Feng Bao"
("Storm") instead of "Chang Zheng".
Ariane 5 Performs Sixth Launch of Year
Ariane 5 ECA L575 orbited DirecTV 14 and GSat 16, communication satellites for the U.S.
and India, on December 6, 2014. Arianespace Mission VA221, the year's sixth Ariane 5,
lifted off from Kourou's ELA 3 at 20:40 UTC. After a 25 minute ascent phase, the
satellites separated into geosynchronous transfer orbit.
DirecTV 14, a 6. 3 tonne Space Systems/Loral 1300 series 20-kilowatt satellite, was
equipped with 16 Ka-band and 18 Reverse DBS transponders for direct broadcast service from
geostationary orbit at 99 desgrees west. GSat 16, a 3.18 tonne satellite built by
ISRO, carried Ku and C-band transponders. It will be positioned at 55 degrees east.
VA221 was the fifth Ariane 5 ECA flight of 2014 and the 80th orbital launch attempt
worldwide of the year.
NASA's Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 began with a 12:05 UTC liftoff from Cape
Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 37B on December 5, 2014. The eighth
Delta 4 Heavy launch vehicle boosted EFT-1, with the first unmanned Orion Command Module,
into an initial 186 x 894 km x 28.4 deg orbit after a 17 minute 39 second ascent. Delta
4's twin outer booster cores burned out and jettisonned 3 minutes 58 seconds after
liftoff. The core first stage shut down at the 5 minute 30 second mark. The
Delta Heavy Cryogenic Second Stage then performed an 11 minute 30 second first burn to
reach low earth orbit.
Orion remained attached to Delta 4's cryogenic second stage in orbit, awaiting a second
burn about 1 hour 55 minutes into the flight at the end of the first orbit. This
second burn was expected to loft EFT-1 to a nearly 6,000 km apogee on a suborbital
trajectory, creating high speed reentry conditions of up to 9,000 meters per second to
test Orion's Avcoat ablative heat shield. Orion uses the largest, heaviest ablative
heat shield ever flown in space.
Service Module Fairing Jettison
Important separation events were successfully performed during the ascent, including
separation of three 450 kg Service Module Fairings at the 6 minute 20 second mark, about
30 seconds into the second stage burn, and of the roughly 7.5 tonne Launch Abort System
(LAS) about 5 seconds later. The LAS had inert Abort and Attitude Control solid
motor simulators, but used a live Jettison Motor to pull itself and its large fairing away
Delta 4 Heavy weighed 740 tonnes at liftoff, including Orion, its dummy Service Module
and Stage Adapter, the mostly-inert Launch Abort System with its fairing, and jettisonable
Service Module panels. In orbit, the Orion Command Module and dummy Service Modules
together likely weighed roughly 11.5 to 12 tonnes. The CM alone weighed about 9 to 9.5
tonnes in orbit and 8.6 tonnes at splashdown. The LAS likely weighed about 7.7-7.8 tonnes.
Diagram Showing EFT-1 LAS and SM
After coasting in its initial low earth orbit, the second stage restarted its Pratt
& Whitney Rocketdyne RL10B-2 engine at the 1 hour 55 minute mark, performing a 4
minute 43 second burn to boost Orion into its final elliptical orbit, which had a -20 km
perigee, a 5,809 km apogee, and 28.77 deg inclination. The second stage was expected
to perform a third, de-orbit burn after the CM separated.
The CM and SM remained attached to the Delta 4 cryogenic second stage until the CM
separated for reentry about 3 hours 23 minutes after launch, after the vehicle began
falling back to Earth from apogee. At that point, the CM began using its own
reaction control system, consisting of 12 monopropellant thrusters, to control its
attitude. The CM performed a brief "Raise Burn" to test its capabilities
about 3 hours 57 minutes after liftoff.
Left: Orion EFT-1 Launch Abort System Fairing Installation at
Kennedy Space Center
Right: Orion Approaches Splashdown
Orion's entry interface occurred at about the 4 hours 13 minute mark. The capsule
was travelling at a velocity of nearly 9,000 meters per second when it hit the atmosphere.
This represented about 84% of the reentry velocity expected by a CM returning from
future planned SLS-launched deep space missions. During reentry, Orion experienced
peak heating of about 4,000 F and maximum g-forces of 8.0 to 8.3.
The Orion CM reentered and splash down under three main parachutes in the Pacific Ocean
about 444 km west of Baja, California about 4.5 hours after liftoff. Splashdown
occurred 4 hours 24 minutes after liftoff. The A U.S. Navy team, based on the U.S.S.
Anchorage (LPD-23, a San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock), recovered the
Lockheed Martin assembled Orion at Kennedy Space Center's Operations & Checkout
Building during a two year buildup. The company bought the Delta 4 Heavy launch from
United Launch Alliance in 2010. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center built the Stage
Adapter. ATK built the Launch Abort System motors.
It was the first civilian payload carried by Delta 4 Heavy. After its initial
demonstration test flight in 2004, the world's heaviest lifter boosted six Defense
Department payloads, including five top secret missions for the National Reconnaisance
Office. EFT-1 may have been the heaviest payload at liftoff of a Delta 4 Heavy, but
it was likely not the heaviest payload placed into orbit. EFT-1 shed nearly half of
its mass en route to orbit.
On three launch pads, one each in Russia, India, and the United States, large launch
vehicles are being prepared for historic missions as December 2014 approaches. One
or more are likely to fly before year's end. Each flight will mark the public
unveiling of important new programs, products of years of development and spending.
Delta 4 Heavy and EFT-1 Orion at SLC 37B
At Cape Canaveral Space Launch Complex 37B in Florida, a Delta 4
Heavy has been topped by NASA's first Orion crew carrying spacecraft. This prototype
Orion, consisting of a live Command Module and a dummy Service Module, will orbit the
Earth twice during an unmanned test, reaching a nearly 6,000 km apogee, before the
spacecraft will reenter the Earth's atmosphere at nearly 9,000 meters per second to test
its Avcoat heat shield. Orion will splash down below three ringsail parachutes in the
Pacific Ocean off the California coast.
Buildup for this "Exploration Flight Test 1" mission has been underway in
Florida for months. Lockheed Martin crews spent nearly two years assembling this first
flight-capable Orion in the Operations and Checkout Building at Kennedy Space Center
(KSC), with its first power up occurring during November 2013. The Delta 4 Heavy stages
began arriving at the Cape during early March, 2014. They were stored in the Horizontal
Integration Facility at SLC 37 waiting out two Delta 4 Medium series launches, one to
orbit GPS 2F-6 on May 17 and another to launch the first two GSSAP satellites on July 28.
Launch stand modifications for the EFT-1 mission were completed and validated before the
Delta 4 Heavy stack was rolled out to its launch pad on September 30 and erected to
vertical on October 1. The rocket stages were loaded with propellant during a November 5
wet dress rehearsal. Over the night of November 11-12, the Orion spacecraft and its
integrated Launch Abort System was moved, during a 30 kilometer, six hour journey, from
the Launch Abort System facility, where LAS and fairing installation had occurred, to SLC
Illustration of EFT-1 Orion and Delta 4 Second
Stage in Orbit
Planning for the flight, which was expected to occur during early December, began in 2010, shortly after President Obama cancelled Project
Constellation and before continued development of Orion had been approved. The planning
also preceded approval of Space Launch System (SLS). Lockheed Martin bought the Delta 4
Heavy flight and, at the time, discussed plans to follow up the launch with crewed flights
beginning a couple of years later. Those plans were shelved after SLS was approved.
Delta 4 Heavy, currently the world's most capable rocket, will weigh 740 tonnes at liftoff
with EFT-1. The Orion EFT-1 payload will weigh about 21 tonnes at liftoff, including
the mostly-inert Launch Abort System, fairing, and jettisonable Service Module panels. In
orbit, the Orion Command Module and dummy Service Modules together will likely weigh
roughly 11.5 to 12 tonnes. The CM alone will likely weigh about 9 to 9.5 tonnes in orbit
and 8.6 tonnes at splashdown.
The CM and SM will remain attached to the Delta 4 cryogenic second stage until the CM
separates for reentry during the final phase of the 4.5 hour mission, after the vehicle
begins falling back to Earth from apogee. After coasting in a low earth initial
orbit, the second stage will perform a second burn to boost Orion into its final
elliptical orbit, which will have a negative perigee. The second stage will perform
a third, de-orbit burn after the CM separates.
At Russia's Plesetsk Cosmodrome, Site 35/1, Krunichev crews rolled out the first
multi-core Angara A5 rocket - the largest, most-capable rocket
ever seen in Russia - on November 10, 2015. Angara, named after a fast-flowing 1,800 km
long Siberian river, is Russia's first entirely post-Soviet space launch vehicle. After a
two decade long, stop-start development program, a single-core Angara performed the
program's first test launch from Russian soil on July 9, 2014. The suborbital flight from
Plesetsk Cosmodrome was made by a two-stage Angara 1.2PP, heralding the start of the new
modular launch vehicle family capable of lifting payloads ranging from light to
heavy. Now Angara A5 is being readied for its premier.
Angara 1.2PP (PP for Pervy Polyot, or "First Flight") consisted of a 2.9 meter
diameter URM-1 (Universal Rocket Module) first stage topped by a 3.6 meter diameter URM-2
second stage. Heavy lifter Angara A5, a rocket that when fully developed may eventually
rival Delta 4 Heavy, uses in its initial form five clustered URM-1 modules topped by a
URM-2 second stage and a Briz M third stage.
Each URM-1 is powered by a single, 196 tonne thrust Energomash RD-191 staged combustion
kerosene/LOX engine. RD-191 is derived from the four-chamber Energomash RD-171 engine that
powers the Zenit launcher. A two-chamber variant, RD-180, currently boosts Atlas 5
rockets. URM-2 is powered by a 30 tonne thrust LOX/kerosene RD-0124 engine. This
staged-combustion engine was developed to power the upgraded Soyuz-2 third stage, and has
already been proven in flight. The Briz-M hypergolic propellant third stage has flown for
several years atop Proton-M boosters.
Assembly of the first Angara A5 was completed in a horizontal fixture in the Site 35
hangar at Plesetsk during October and early November, 2014. The rocket was rolled out on a
railroad transporter to its launch pad on November 10. A propellant loading test was
performed on or before November 20. The 770+ tonne rocket may lift off, rising on 980
tonnes of thrust from its five engines, before year's end, though an early 2015 test
flight is also possible.
The core will throttle down while the four strap-on boosters burn at full thrust before
separating about 3.5 minutes into the flight at an altitude of about 82 kilometers. The
boosters will fall to earth about 850 kilometers east of Plesetsk. The core stage will
separate less than two minutes later at about 148 kilometers altitude and fall about 2,320
Angara A5 will be able to lift 24.5 tonnes to a 200 km x 63 deg low earth orbit (LEO), or
5.4 tonnes to geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) from Plesetsk with a Briz M upper stage.
Use of a projected high energy KVRB stage could improve GTO performance to 6.6 tonnes.
Angara A5's LEO capability is currently only exceeded by the RS-68A powered version of
Delta 4 Heavy.
The first Angara family vehicle to fly was the two-stage KSLV-1 (Korean Space Launch
Vehicle), which consisted of an Angara-derived first stage topped by a small solid fuel
second stage developed by South Korea's Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI). The
28.5 by 2.9 meter, 140 tonne first stage was very similar to Angara's URM-1, except that
it was powered by an Energomash RD-151 engine that produced 170 tonnes of liftoff thrust.
RD-151 was a lower-pressure, lower-thrust version of 196 tonne thrust RD-191.
The first KSLV-1 launch took place on August 25, 2009. It was an attempt to boost
STSat-2, a 100 kg test satellite, into a 306 x 1,500 km near polar orbit. The first stage
portion of the ascent was successful, but one of the two payload fairing halves failed to
separate. Orbital velocity could not be attained.
The second KSLV-1 failed on June 10, 2010. A "flash" was seen and telemetry
was lost 137 seconds into the flight, about 60% of the way into the burn of the vehicle's
Energomash RD-151 first stage engine. The cause of the failure was not immediately
apparent, and the Russian and South Korean teams disagreed about the cause. The rocket was
carrying a second engineering test satellite named STSat-2B.
A third attempt, on January 30, 2013, finally produced success. The final planned
KSLV-1 successfully orbited South Korea's STSAT-2C satellite from Naro. The flight added
South Korea to the list of 13 countries that have hosted orbital launches. STSAT-2C
separated into a 296 x 1,513 km x 80.3 deg orbit about nine minutes after liftoff.
GSLV Mk 3 Facilities Test Mockup
At Sriharikota's Second Launch Pad in India, crews have begun stacking the country's
first GSLV Mk3 launch vehicle, in preparation for the GSLV Mk3
X1, or "LVM3-X", suborbital test flight. The 629 tonne, 42.4 meter tall rocket -
India's largest - will fly with an inert C25 LH2/LOX third stage in a test that will loft
a crew module demonstrator capsule thousands of kilometers downrange to test heat shield
materials for a possible future crewed Indian spacecraft. The launch may occur in
late 2014 or early 2015.
The second GSLV Mk 3 is planned to subsequently perform the "LVM3-D1" orbital
mission with a functional C25 third stage, a flight that may not occur until 2016 or
GSLV Mk 3, designed by India's Space Research Organization's (ISRO), will be able to
lift 4-5 tonne satellites into geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) and potentially serve
as a crew launch vehicle for India in the future. Although it shares the
"Geosynchronous Space Launch Vehicle" designation with ISRO's GSLV and GSLV Mk 2
rockets, GSLV Mk 3 is an all new design.
GSLV is fitted with a 5 meter diameter payload fairing. It will lift off on the thrust of
two S-200 solid propellant motors, each loaded with about 200 tonnes of propellant. The
L-110 liquid core second stage will ignite its two hypergolic propellant Vikas engines 110
seconds after liftoff, about 20 seconds before the solid motors burn out. After a 200
second burn by the second stage, the C-25 cryogenic LH2/LOX fueled third stage would
normally take over, performing two burns of its newly developed CE-20 Indian Cryogenic
Engine (ICE) for a total of 580 seconds during a typical GTO mission. On the
"LVM3-X" test flight, the propulsion phase will end when the Vikas engines of
the L-110 second stage shut down.
First Flight Core (Second) Stage
The 25 meter tall, three-segment, steel-case S-200 will be the second largest active
solid propellant motor in the world after the Ariane 5 EAP-E booster. NASA's Space Launch
System boosters will also surpass S-200 if and when they enter service. S-200 is 3.2
meters in diameter and is manufactured in a plant at Sriharikota.
The L-110 core stage is 17 meters long and four meters in diameter. It is powered for
200 seconds by two Vikas engines similar to the engines used on the second stage of PSLV
and GSLV. On those stages Vikas burns for 150 seconds in a single-engine configuration.
The cryogenic third stage requires development of the 20 tonne thrust CE-20 LH2/LOX
engine, which is a pacing item for GSLV Mk 3. India's less powerful Indigenous Cryogenic
Engine failed during its first flight in on April 15, 2010 during the GSLV Mk 2 D3
mission. It finally succeeded during the GSLV Mk 2 D5 flight of January 5, 2014.
Launches Asteroid Sampler
H-2A-202 F26 launched Japan's Hayabusa 2 on a six year mission to gather and return to
Earth samples from an asteroid on December 3, 2014. The 2.5 stage rocket lifted off from
Tanegashima Yoshinobu Launch Complex 1 at 04:22 UTC to begin its nearly two-hour flight.
For the first time, an H-2A second stage was to perform a one-orbit, 90 minute long
parking orbit coast before restarting its LE-5B engine to propel Hayabusa 2 and three
microsatellites away from Earth into solar orbit. White thermal paint was added to the
exterior of the second stage tank to minimize propellant boiloff during the long coast.
Hayabusa 2, built by NEC Corporation, weighed 600 kg at liftoff and was the year's first
satellite launched into solar orbit. It will fly by Earth again in December 2015 to
gain velocity before reaching asteriod 1999 JU3 in June 2018. After sampling the asteroid,
Hayabusa 2 will depart in December 2019 for a return to Earth one year later. Samples will
be returned in a small reentry capsule.
Hayabusa 2 was expected to separate 1 hour, 47 minutes, 15 seconds after liftoff. The
microsatellites, named Procyon, Shin'en 2 and Artsat 2, were expected to separate a few
minutes later. Together, the microsatellites weighed about 110 kg tonne.
The first Hayabusa spacecraft, also called MUSES-C, was launched on 9 May 2003 by an M-5
rocket. It rendezvoused with asteroid Itokawa in September 2005 and attempted to gather
samples. A sample capsule returned to Earth in June 2010.
Russia Orbits Glonass-K
A Russian Soyuz 2-1b/Fregat rocket launched a Glonass-K navigation satellite into orbit
from Plesetsk Cosmodrome November 30, 2014. Lift off from Area 43 Pad 4 took place at
21:52 UTC. After the Soyuz rocket boosted Fregat and its payload into low earth orbit, the
Fregat upper stage performed three burns to lift the 0.935 tonne satellite into a roughly
19,130 x 19,150 km x 64.8 deg orbit. Spacecraft separation occurred about 2.5 hours after
It was the third Soyuz 2-1b/Fregat launch with a Glonass payload from Plesetsk in 2014. It
was only the second Glonass-K launched to date. The first took place in 2011.
Soyuz Orbits ISS Crew
A Soyuz FG rocket successfully launched Soyuz TMA-15M with three crew to the International
Space Station on November 23, 2014. The 2.5 stage R-7 based launch vehicle lifted off from
Baikonur Cosmodrome Area 31 Pad 6 at 21:01 UTC, beginning a 5 hour, 48 minute fast-track
ascent to the station.
The crew included Russia's Anton Shkaplerov, Italy's Samantha Cristoforetti, and USA's
Terry Virts. They joined Barry Wilmore, Alexander Samokutyaev, and Elena Serova on ISS.
It was the year's fourth crewed orbital space flight. All have been performed by Soyuz
vehicles from Russia. The launch was also the 50th by a Soyuz FG variant, all of
which have been successful.
Launches Second Kuaizhou (Updated 11/24/14)
China launched the second quick response orbital launch vehicle named "Kuaizhou"
("Quick Vessel") on November 21, 2014 from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. The
rocket boosted a "disaster monitoring satellite", according to China's Xinhua,
named Kuaizhou 2 into a 293 x 298 km x 96.56 deg orbit after a 06:37 UTC liftoff.
The first Kuaizhou launch from the same site occurred on September 25, 2013. No
photos of either launch were initially released. Photos of the second launch vehicle
in a hangar and being launched were made available on November 23, 2014.
Kuaizhou is believed to be a small solid fuel based launched vehicle developed by China
Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC). It may be based on the DF-21/25 or
DF-31 solid fuel ballistic missiles already in China's inventory. Since those missiles are
road mobile, the launch may have been performed from a mobile transporter erector launcher
from a flat pad at Jiuquan.
uses grid fins at the base of its first stage to provide, or augment, initial steering.
It may have three solid stages and a fourth, potentially liquid insertion stage.
The fourth stage of propulsion may be built in to the satellite.
China attempted to develop a DF-31 based solid fuel orbital launch vehicle named KT-1
about ten years ago, but KT-1 failed in two test flights. The country then developed a
DF-21 based ASAT launch vehicle named KT-2 that it used to destroy a satellite in orbit in
2007. On May 13, 2013, China launched another unknown solid fuel rocket on an extremely
high altitude suborbital launch from XiChang.
It was the year's 75th known orbital launch attempt and the 12th by China. Five
of the world's last 10 orbital attempts were performed by China.
CZ-2D Orbits Yaogan 24
China's Chang Zheng 2D orbited Yaogan 24, likely a Jianbing-6 series electro-optical
military observation satellite, from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center on November 20, 2014.
The 232 tonne, two-stage rocket lifted off from LC 43/-603 at 07:12 UTC. The rocket
delivered the satellite, which likely weighed about one tonne, into a 630 x 653 km x 97.91
deg sun synchronous orbit. Previous satellites of this series included Yaogan 2, 4, 7, and
11, launched in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively.
Chinas Xinhua news agency reported that Yaogan 24 was a remote sensing satellite
that will mainly be used for scientific experiments, natural resource surveys, crop
yield estimates and disaster relief".
It was the 11th CZ launch of 2014, all but one of which have flown since the beginning of
China Orbits Yaogan 23
A two-stage Chang Zheng 2C rocket orbited China's Yaogan 23 remote sensing satellite from
Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center on November 14, 2014. Liftoff of the 213 tonne
launch vehicle from LC 9 took place at 18:53 UTC. Yaogan 23, which likely weighed less
than one tonne, was lofted into a 470 x 497 km x 97.14 deg sun synchronous low earth
China described the satellite's mission to be for "scientific experiments, land
resources survey, crop yield assessment, disaster prevention and reduction, and other
fields". Western observers believed that Yaogan 23 was a radar ground mapping
satellite with a primary military mission.
It was the 10th CZ launch of 2014.
Dnepr Orbits Japanese Satellites
On November 6, 2014, a modified Russian R-36MUTTH "Satan" ICBM named Dnepr
orbited five Japanese Earth observation satellites from the Yasnyy launch site at
Dombarovsky. The launch from an underground missile silo took place at 07:35 UTC.
Dnepr boosted ASNARO (Advanced Satellite with New system ARchitecture for Observation),
a 500 kg satellite for optical Earth observation built by NEC Corporation of Japan for the
Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, and four Japanese university microsatellites,
each weighing between 49 and 60 kg, to a roughly 550 km x 97.46 deg sun synchronous orbit.
Russian Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Ministry of Defense performed the launch
for ISC Kosmotras, which is a consortium of Russian, Ukrainian and Kazakhstan companies.
Orbital Announces Accident
On November 5, 2014, Orbital Sciences announced its plans to recover from the October 28,
2014 Antares launch failure. Its plans included steps both to restore Antares to flight and to fulfill the company's contractual
requirements under NASA's Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) program.
Orbital's decisions were informed in part by early findings of the Antares launch failure
Accident Investigation Board (AIB), which was focusing on a "probable
turbopump-related failure in one of the two Aerojet Rocketdyne AJ26 stage one main
engines". As a result of the findings, Orbital announced that it would likely
discontinue use of the engines on future Antares launch vehicles.
The company was already planning to replace the AJ26 engines, which are refurbished forty
year old NK33 engines made by Kuznetsov for the USSR's N1 rocket. Even before the failed
Antares launch, Orbital had decided on an alternate, modern engine, thought most likely to
be an Energomash RD-18x or RD-19x series staged combustion kerosene/LOX engine.
The new engines would not have flown on Antares until 2017 at the earliest, but Orbital
now intends to accelerate the replacement effort and aim for a 2016 first flight of the
re-engined rocket from Wallops. If no more AJ26 engines are flown, a two year or more gap
in Antares flights will result. To compensate, Orbital said that it plans to fly one or
two Cygnus cargo missions to the International Space Station on "non-Antares"
rockets during 2015-2016.
Likely potential temporary Antares stand-ins include Atlas 5, Delta 4, Falcon 9, and
The company planned to take advantage of the heavier lifting capabilities of both the
"non-Antares" rockets and of the upgraded Antares after 2016 to carry more cargo
in each Cygnus than originally planned. The result will be one less Cygnus mission than
originally planned, eliminating the need to build a spacecraft to replace the Cygnus lost
on October 28.
Rockets and Failure
For as long as rockets and rocket-powered craft have flown, there have been failures.
Space Launch Report readers know that roughly one out of every 16 orbital space launch
attempts on average end in failure, a record that has been repeated steadily for more than
It should not have been a surprise, then, when the fifth Orbital Science Antares launch
vehicle failed on October 28, 2014, or when Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo broke up in
flight three days later, killing Scaled Composites pilot Michael Alsbury and
injuring pilot Peter Siebold. The Antares loss was the fourth known orbital space launch
vehicle failure world-wide in 2014. At least 23 such failures have occurred since the
start of 2010, and 126 since 1990.
Modern rocketry is a frightening balancing act. To accelerate from a dead stop to more
than seven times faster than a rifle bullet in a few minutes, an orbital launch vehicle
must create, contain, and endure extreme pressures, temperatures, and forces. All it takes
to trip up the process is one loose connection, one small piece of sand or rust, a bad bit
of metal or insulation, a misplaced bit in a control program, or an unexpected vibration.
Still, the general public continues to express surprise when a failure occurs. Perhaps it
is because most failures occur out of sight, downrange or in orbit. Maybe it is because,
increasingly, some launch providers refuse to show their failures. SpaceX, for example,
has never showed external videos of its fiery, explosive Falcon 1 failures. If not
for a bystander with a camera, the world would not have seen its F9R test stage destroyed
in a fireball above Texas earlier this year. SNC never showed the crash of its Dream
Chaser prototype. North Korea and Iran don't show launches in real time and usually don't
announce failures. China and now Russia don't show launches live which allows them to
restrict videos of failures.
Fortunately, NASA TV did not restrict coverage of the spectacular Antares failure. It
served as a necessary reminder to everyone that rockets fail. The network also showed a
press conference held shortly after the launch that exhibited the type of resilience
required to be in the rocket business. David Thompson, chairman and chief executive of
Orbital Sciences, said during that conference, shortly after witnessing the $200+ million
failure that, "Orbital has experienced adversity in the past, some of which was more
difficult than this. And the company has always emerged stronger as a result. I am
determined that we will do so again this time.
Soyuz 2-1A/Fregat Orbits Milcomsat
A Soyuz 2-1A launch vehicle with a Fregat upper stage orbited Meridian 17L, a Russian
military communications satellite, from Plesetsk Cosmodrome on October 30, 2014. The 3.5
stage rocket lifted off from Site 43 Pad 4 at 01:42 UTC, beginning a 2 hour 16 minute
mission that placed the 2 tonne satellite into an elliptical 12 hour "Molniya"
orbit that was initially tracked to be 968 x 39,749 km x 62.81 deg.
It was the first flight of an NPO Lavochkin built Fregat stage since the August 22, 2014
failure of a Fregat stage launched from Kourou left two of Europe's Galileo navigation
satellites in incorrect, useless orbits. That failure was subsequently found to have been
caused by frozen propellant lines for attitude control thrusters. An investigation found
that the propellant lines were routed next to helium lines. On some stages, the lines were
in direct contact, allowing the cold helium line to freeze propellant in the propellant
line during long coast periods.
Meridian 17L was described as the seventh next-generation Meridian satellite. The first
such satellite was launched in 2006, but failed less than 2.5 years later. The second was
placed in an incorrect orbit due to a Fregat failure in 2009. The fifth was lost in a
Soyuz launch vehicle failure. The third and fourth next-generation Meridians were
successfully launched in 2010 and 2011.
50th Atlas 5 Orbits GPS 2F-8
The 50th Atlas 5 rocket, a two-stage 401 variant, orbited U.S. Air Force Global
Positioning Satellite 2F-8 from Cape Canaveral SLC 41 on October 29, 2014. Liftoff
occurred at 17:21 UTC to begin a 3.5 hour mission designed to place the 1.63 tonne
navigation satellite into a 20,200 km x 55 deg circular orbit.
Atlas climbed on a northeast azimuth from the Cape, paralleling the Eastern Seaboard of
the United States. Centuar performed a 12 minute 50 second long first burn as it
flew up the coast and halfway across the Atlantic to lift itself into an elliptical 176 x
20,279 km x 55 deg transfer orbit. After coasting for just over 3 hours to
first apogee south of Australia, Centaur burned again for about 1.5 minutes to complete
It was the 8th Atlas launch of 2014, the 15th orbital launch from Cape Canaveral during
the year, and the 70th orbital launch attempt world-wide since January 1.
2-1A Inaugural Progress Launch
Russia's Soyuz 2-1A, an improved version of the long-flying Soyuz-U rocket, launched the
Progress M-25M cargo spacecraft to the International Space Station from Baikonur
Cosmodrome on October 29, 2014. It was the first use of Soyuz 2-1A, which incorporates
upgraded engines and a digital control system, for a Progress mission, though the improved
rocket has flown other missions for a decade. Liftoff from Area 31 Pad 6 took place at
07:09 UTC, with the launch vehicle targeting a 193 x 240 km x 51.67 deg insertion orbit.
The robot spacecraft docked with ISS about six hours later after a fast-track, four
Progress M-25M weighed 7.29 tonnes at liftoff, including 2.351 tonnes of cargo.
Russia plans to begin using Soyuz 2-1A for crew launches after two years of testing on
Antares/Cygnus Launch Fails
First Antares 130 on Pad 0A with Orb-3/Cygnus Payload
The fifth Orbital Sciences Antares rocket suffered a fiery failure moments after
liftoff with the Orbital CRS-3 (Orb-3) Cygnus ISS resupply mission from Wallops Island,
Virginia on October 28, 2014. Flying for the first time as an Antares 130 variant with a
lengthened Castor 30XL second stage, the rocket lifted off from Pad 0A at 22:22 UTC.
The two AJ-26 first stage main engines ignited at T+0 seconds, followed by liftoff at
about T+2 seconds. The initial moments of the ascent seemed normal until about T+14
seconds when the engine exhaust plume suddenly changed color from its usual intense white
to a yellowish color. About one second later a ball of fire erupted from the aft section
of the rocket and propulsion ceased.
The big rocket momentarily hung in midair before beginning to fall, engine section
first, trailing a stream of fire. At about T+24 seconds, the nearly fully fueled Antares
rocket impacted between the beach and the pad itself, creating a huge fireball that flung
debris in all directions. An intense post-impact fire that appeared to involve pieces of
the second stage solid propellant burned for many minutes.
Although Pad 0A exhibited signs of obvious damage, the basic reinforced concrete structure
of the launch pad and other elements of the facility appeared on NASA TV to still be
intact - one hopeful sign amidst the otherwise catastrophic scene.
The Initial Fireball
Orbital CRS-3 included a Cygnus spacecraft loaded with 2.215 tonnes of cargo for the
International Space Station, heaviest-ever for Cygnus which weighed about 5.644 tonnes
including cargo. The cargo included crew provisions, research hardware, emergency
equipment, spacewalk supplies and packing materials. It was slated to stay at ISS for
about one month until returning to a destructive reentry with about 1.36 tonnes of trash.
It was the first Antares failure. The Ukrainian/Russian/American rocket first flew on
April 21, 2013. The second Antares carried the first Cygnus to ISS on the Orb-D1 mission
on September 18, 2013. The subsequent operational Orb-1 and Orb-2 missions lifted off on
January 9 and July 13, 2014, respectively.
Although the cause of the failure was not known immediately after launch, attention was
expected to focus on the AJ-26 main engines, which are decades-old NK-33 Russian rocket
engines that have been refurbished by U.S. Aerojet-Rocketdyne. On May 22, 2014, an AJ-26
being test fired at Stennis Space Center suffered a catastrophic failure 30 seconds into a
planned 54 second burn. The failure destroyed the engine and triggered an investigation.
Orbital did not reveal the cause of the failure and damage to the test stand had
prevented renewed testing by the time of the Orb-3 liftoff. The Orb-2 and Orb-3 Antares
engines, which had previously been tested at Stennis before the May failure, were cleared
for flight following borescope inspections and a review of their own test firing data.
CZ-2C Orbits Shijian 11-08
A CZ-2C rocket launched China's Shijian 11-08 into sun synchronous orbit from Jiuquan
Satellite Launch Center on October 27, 2014. It was the third Shijian 11
("Practice") launch of the year and the second in a month. It was also likely
the final launch of the Shijian 11 series.
The 213 tonne, two stage rocket lifted off from Launch Complex 43, Pad 603 at 06:59 UTC.
The satellite, eigth in a series, entered a roughly 700 km x 98.22 deg orbit.
Shijian 11-08 was developed by China Spacesat Co. Ltd for China Aerospace Science and
Technology Corporation. It likely weighed less than 1 tonne, given CZ-2C's near-polar
China announced that the satellite would be used to "conduct experiments in
spece". No further details of the satellite mission were announced. It was the ninth
Chang Zheng orbital launch of the year and the fourth launch in a month.
SpaceX Dragon CRS-4 returned from a nearly five week stay at the International Space
Station on October 25, 2014. The cargo hauling capsule splashed down off Southern
California's coast with 1.486 tonnes of cargo. The CRS-4 mission began with a
September 21, 2014 launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida. CRS-4 was the fourth of at
least 12 missions to ISS that SpaceX is contracted to fly under NASA's $1.6 billion
Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contract.
China Launches Lunar Sample Return Precursor
China launched its Chang'e-5-T1 lunar sample return precursor test flight from XiChang
Satellite Launch Center on October 23, 2014. Chang'e-5-T1, bound for a lunar free-return
trajectory, lifted off from Launch Complex 2 atop the first Chang Zheng 3CE (Enhanced)
launch vehicle at 18:00 UTC. The spacecraft was inserted into a 209 x 413,000 km
lunar transfer orbit.
After circumnavigating and passing about 13,000 km from
the Moon's surface about four days after liftoff, the satellite is slated to return toward
Earth and, a little more than eight days after liftoff jettison a reentry module that will
return to be recovered in Inner Mongolia. The module is shaped like a scaled version of
China's manned Shenzhou reentry module. It will have to endure an 11.2 km/sec high speed
reentry that includes a skip-type profile.
Chang'e-5-T1 is a test of elements of the Chang'e-5
mission planned for 2017. Chang'e-5 will return a 2 kg sample of lunar soil and rocks to
the Earth using a reentry module similar to the Chang'e-5-T1 module.
CZ-3CE is an enhanced version of the CZ-3C launch
vehicle that uses a first stage stretched by 1.488 meters and boosters stretched by about
0.76 meters. The lengthened stage and boosters have both previously flown on the CZ-3BE
launch vehicle, beginning in 2007. CZ-3CE can lift 3.9 tonnes to a standard GTO, an
increase of 0.1 tonnes from CZ-3C. These "Enhanced" variants will become the new
standards as China phases out the previous versions.
Orbits Express AM6 (Updated 10/24/14)
Russia's 399th Proton orbited the Express AM6
communications satellite from Baikonur Cosmodrome on October 21, 2014. The 705 tonne,
four-stage rocket lifted off from Site 81 Pad 24 at 15:09 UTC to begin a nearly 9.5 hour
mission that included four burns by the Briz M upper stage.
Express AM6, a 3.358 tonne Express 2000 series satellite built by ISS Reshetnev, carried
72 transponders in Ku-band, C-band, Ka-band and L-band.
Ekpress-AM6 ended up in a 31,307 x 37,784 km x 0.7 deg
orbit, short of the expected 33,800 x 37,787 km x 0.18 deg by about 50 meters per second
delta-v. During its fourth burn meant to raise the perigee and reduce the
inclination of a 369 x 37,736 km x 49.56 deg transfer orbit, the Briz M stage cut off 24
seconds before its planned 779 second duration, leading outside observers to believe that
some type of failure had occurred during the final burn even though Russian authorities
insisted that the launch was successful. Briz M used its own smaller thrusters to
subsequently lift itself into a 34,984 x 39,549 km x 1.0 deg disposal orbit.
Express AM6 should be able to use its electric
propulsion system to maneuver itself from its "quasi-geosynchronous" insertion
orbit to a final geostationary orbit at 53 degrees east longitude. It is not known
if the extra delta-v needed to reach GSO will affect the planned 15 year lifetime of the
The mission used Proton-M serial number 935-48 and Briz-M serial number 995-50. It was the
sixth Proton launch, and fifth success, of 2014.
Orbits Yaogan Weixing 22
A Chang Zheng (Long March) 4C rocket orbited China's Yaogan Weixing 22 reconnasaince
satellite from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center on October 20, 2014. The three-stage rocket
lifted off from Launch Complex 9 at 06:31 UTC. YG-22 was inserted into a roughly 1,200 km
x 100.32 deg orbit.
As usual for a satellite of this type, China announced that it had a remote sensing
mission for "scientific experiments, land survey, crop yield assessment, and disaster
monitoring". Outside observers believe that YG-22 is an optical reconnaisance
satellite that likely has a military mission, at least in part.
X-37B Lands at
After 674 days in orbit, the third X-37B unmanned reusable space plane mission (OTV-3)
ended with a successful landing at Vandenberg AFB Runway 12. Touchdown occurred at 16:24
UTC. It was the second flight of the first of two X-37B spacecraft.
OTV-3 was orbited by Atlas 5-501 AV-034 from Cape Canaveral, Florida on December 11, 2012.
It initially entered a low earth orbit inclined 43.5 degrees to the equator. Previous OTV
mission launches took place on April 22, 2010 and March 5, 2011, lasting 224 and 469 days,
The X-37B spaceplane's specific mission and what it
carried in its small payload bay were classified. The Air Force only described the mission
in general terms as "risk reduction, experimentation, and concept of operations
development for resuable space vehicle technologies".
After the landing, the Air Force announced plans to launch a fourth X-37B mission from
Cape Canaveral in 2015. Boeing recently announced plans to move its X-37B operations into
two former Shuttle orbiter hangars (OPF-1 and OPF-2) at nearby Kennedy Space Center.
Launches Comsats for Latin America
An Ariane 5 ECA L574 orbited Intelsat 30/DLA 1 and Arsat 1, communication satellites for
Latin America, on October 16, 2014. Arianespace Mission VA220 began from Kourou's ELA 3
launch complex with a 21:43 UTC liftoff. The satellites separated into geosynchronous
transfer orbits about 30 minutes later.
Intelsat 30/DLA 1, a 6.32 tonne Space Systems/Loral satellite, carries 72 Ku-band and 10
C-band transponders and will raise itself into geostationary orbit at 95 degrees west. The
2.973 tonne Arsat 1 satellite, which rode to orbit below Intelsat 30, was built by INVAP
in Argentina. It be positioned at 71.8 degrees west.
It was the fifth Ariane 5, and fourth Ariane 5 ECA, flight of 2014. It was also the 45th
consecutive Ariane 5 ECA success, a streak that has lasted nearly 12 years.
PSLV-XL C26 successfully orbited India's IRNSS-1C navigation satellite on October 15, 2014
after launch from Sriharikota. The four stage rocket lifted off from Satish Dhawan Space
Center's First Launch Pad at 20:02 UTC. The 1.425 tonne satellite separated into a
subsynchronous transfer orbit about 20 minutes 18 seconds later.
The satellite will fire its liquid propulsion engine multiple times to raise itself from
its initial 283 x 20,670 km x 17.9 deg transfer orbit into a 35,786 km x 0.0 deg
geostationary orbit. IRNSS-1C had to be inserted into a subsynchronous orbit due to mass
limits of the PSLV-XL launch vehicle.
It was the third Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System launch of seven planned by
the end of 2015. Three will be placed in geostationary orbit while the other four will
occupy inclined geosynchronous orbits.
It was the third PSLV launch, and fourth Indian launch, of 2014, the most-ever in a
Japan's H-2A boosted the Himawari 8 weather satellite into geosynchronous transfer orbit
on October 7, 2014 from Tanegashima Space Center. H-2A F25, a "202" variant with
two strap-on SRB-A solid motor boosters, lifted off from Yoshinobu Launch Complex Pad 1 at
The 53 meter tall, 286 tonne rocket's liquid hydrogen fueled upper stage fired its LE-5B
engine twice to boost the 3.5 tonne Mitsubishi Electric Corp. built satellite toward a
planned 250 x 35,976 km x 22.4 deg transfer orbit. Spacecraft separation occurred 27
minutes and 57 seconds after liftoff.
Himawari 8 will use its own propulsion system to gradually move itself into a circular
geostationary orbit above the equator at 140 degrees east longitude. It will work for the
Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA).
It was the third of four planned H-2A launches in 2014.
ULA/Blue Origin to Develop Powerful New Engine
BE-4 Model at Press Conference
On September 17, 2014, United Launch Alliance and Blue Origin, a privately held company
owned by Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, announced that they were teaming to jointly fund
development of Blue Origin's new BE-4 rocket engine. The development effort would last
four years, with full-scale testing in 2016 and first flight in 2019. The new engine would
be available for use by both companies.
BE-4 will burn liquid oxygen and liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an oxygen rich staged
combustion cycle to produce 550,000 pounds (249.5 tonnes) of sea level thrust. ULA
boosters would use two BE-4s to produce 1,100,000 pounds (499 tonnes) of total thrust at
Blue Origin has been working on BE-4 development for three years, with component testing
underway at the company's test site near Van Horn, Texas and in facilities near Kent,
Washington. Completed testing has included subscale oxygen-rich preburner development and
staged combustion testing of the preburner and main injector assembly. Testing of the
turbopumps and main valves is the next major step. A large new test facility was completed
in May, 2014 in Texas to support full-scale engine testing.
BE-4 should operate at a higher specific impulse than the Atlas 5 RD-180, but not as high
as Delta 4's RS-68. The engine could be heavier than RD-180, and the less dense propellant
would force use of bigger, heavier tanks than those used by Atlas 5, but BE-4s higher
thrust compared to RD-180 would help offset those factors.
ULA noted that BE-4 is not a direct replacement for RD-180, but that "two BE-4s are
expected to provide the engine thrust for the next generation ULA vehicles". The
company said that the "next generation vehicles" would "maintain the key
heritage components of ULAs Atlas and Delta rockets", including the strap-on
solid boosters, and said that details would be announced at a later date.
NASA Awards Commercial Crew to
CST-100 Approaching ISS
On September 16, 2014, NASA awarded commercial crew contracts to Boeing and SpaceX.
Boeing was alloted $4.2 billion to develop and fly CST-100. SpaceX won $2.6 billion
to develop its Dragon V2. Although the awards differed in value, both companies responded
to identical requirements. Both will develop and certify their spacecraft and launch
systems, will perform a single crewed demonstration mission, possibly before the end of
2017, and both then will fly two to six missions to the International Space Station,
carrying four astronauts during each flight. Both spacecraft will be designed to stay at
ISS for up to 210 days to provide a lifeboat function.
The announcement left out Sierra Nevada Corporation's Dream Chaser, a lifting body design
that would have glided to runway landings.
CST-100, a 4.56 meter diameter, 5.03 meter tall spacecraft, was expected to be launched by
United Launch Alliance's Atlas 5 rocket. The spacecraft will use four Aerojet Rocketdyne
RS-88 launch abort engines mounted in a pusher configuration on the aft end of a small
cylindrical service module to provide emergency aborts. The engines will burn NTO and
Hydrazine to together create about 72 tonnes of thrust. Aerojet Rocketdyne will also
provide orbital maneuvering and attitude control thrusters for the spacecraft.
An Atlas 5-422 version fitted with two strap on solid motors and a Centaur second stage
powered by two RL-10 engines was a likely CST-100 launch vehicle. Development and
certification of the two-engine Centaur would be required. Launches would take place from
Cape Canaveral Space Launch Complex 41.
Dragon V2, a 3.7 meter diameter, 6.7 meter tall spacecraft, will be launched by a SpaceX
Falcon 9 v1.1. The launch site would be either SLC 40 at Cape Canaveral or LC 39A at
Kennedy Space Center, which SpaceX is currently refurbishing for Falcon Heavy.
One reason for the contract price difference is likely that SpaceX has a head start on
Boeing. SpaceX is already launching Dragon cargo missions to ISS. Dragon V2 will be built
in the same factory and launched by the same, already proven rocket as Dragon. Boeing
still has to have its launch vehicle developed and still has to outfit a production
facility for its spacecraft. The company plans to build and process CST-100 in a former
Orbiter Maintenance Facility building at KSC.
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