Space Launch Report:  Chang Zheng Data Sheet
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CZ-2FChang Zheng (Long March)

Vehicle Configurations

Vehicle Components

DF-5 Based Launch History

CZ-2F at Ji Quan LC 43/921 Mobile Launcher Complex with Shenzhou Spacecraft

During the 1960s, China developed a series of Dong Feng (DF, or “East Wind”) ballistic missiles capable of carrying thermonuclear warheads. Two of these missiles, the intermediate range DF-3 and the intercontinental range DF-5, were subsequently adopted for use as space launchers.

A small solid fuel third stage was added to the 2.25 meter diameter DF-3 missile to create Chang Zheng 1 (CZ-1, or Long March 1), China’s first space launcher. On April 24, 1970, CZ-1 boosted China’s first satellite, Dong Fang Hong (DFH-1, "The East is Red"), into low earth orbit from Jiuquan Space Center, on the western edge of Inner Mongolia's Alashan Desert. After a second launch in 1971, CZ-1 was supplanted by more powerful DF-5 based vehicles

cz3b8.jpg (8144 bytes)CZ-3B at Xi Chang LC 2

DF-5, first test flown in 1971, used two 3.35 meter diameter stages that carried the storable propellants UDHM and nitrogen tetroxide. Its first stage was powered by the 284 metric ton thrust (sea-level) YF-21, which was an assembly of four 71 ton thrust YF-20 engines. Its second stage was powered by a YF-24 engine consisting of a 73 ton-thrust YF-22 and a 4.7 ton-thrust YF-23 vernier.

The first space launchers derived from DF-5 were the nearly-identical Feng Bao (FB-1, or Tempest), manufactured by Shanghai Academy of Space Technology (SAST), and CZ-2 developed by China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) in Beijing. CZ-2 (CZ-2C with a stretched second stage) launched 1.8 ton FSW recoverable film spy satellites, which landed by parachute in the Alashan, while FB-1 orbited 1 ton nonrecoverable TV imaging satellites. Both two-stage rockets flew from Jiquan into low earth orbit (LEO) beginning in 1973-74.

FB-1 was discontinued after 1981. Shortly thereafter, SAST began to manufacture for CALT the first two stages of CZ-3, a new DF-5 based launcher with a liquid hydrogen fueled third stage. CZ-3 first flew from China’s new Xichang Space Center in south-central Szechwan Province in 1984, making China the third country/region to fly a hydrogen stage after the United States and Europe. The rocket could boost 1.4 ton payloads into geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO).

CZ-4BCZ-4B Launch

CZ-4 inaugurated a third launch site, Taiyuan Space Center in northeast China's Shansi Province, in 1988. Taiyuan was China’s first site for launching spacecraft into polar orbits. CZ-4 was equipped with a hypergolic third stage that allowed it to put almost 1.7 tons into a 600 km sun synchronous orbit.

CZ-4, later upgraded with an improved third stage as CZ-4B, heralded the beginning of a new generation of DF-5 based rockets. These were powered by improved YF-21B first stage engines that produced 302 tons of sea level thrust. Some models used four strap-on liquid boosters, each with one YF-20B engine, to double the total liftoff thrust. Upper stage engines were also upgraded.  In 2007, CZ-4C, fitted with an upgraded, restartable third stage and a larger payload fairing, first appeared.

Two-stage CZ-2D, able to put 3.5 tons into LEO, began to replace CZ-2C. CZ-2E, with four strap-on boosters and a solid-fuel third stage, boosted up to 3.4 tons into GTO from Xichang. CZ-3A, with a more powerful hydrogen-fueled third stage, supplanted CZ-3 and CZ-3B, a CZ-3A with four strap-on boosters, could put 5.1 tons into GTO.  In 2008, CZ-3C, a CZ-3A with two strap-on boosters, debuted.

During the 1990s, China's Long March rockets garnered international commercial launch business, but a series of costly launch failures, an insurance filing that claimed one rocket had provided a damaging rough ride to orbit, a technology transfer scandal involving a U.S. satellite manufacturer, and a collapsing commercial market all conspired to chase away many Western customers.

The most infamous launch failure occurred on February 14, 1996 when a CZ-3B carrying Intelsat 708 veered out of control to near-horizontal flight immediately after clearing its Xichang launch tower. The rocket smashed into a populated area, killing at least six and wounding dozens.

In 1999, the first CZ-2F, a modified CZ-2E, launched 8.4 ton Shenzhou 1 into LEO from a new launch complex at Jiuquan. This first uncrewed test flight was followed by three additional tests before Shenzhou 5 orbited Yang Liwei, China's first "astronaut", on October 15, 2003, making China the third nation to possess indigenous human launch capability.

Vehicle Configurations

  LEO
Payload
(metric tons)
200 km x
28.5 deg
LEO/S
Payload
(metric tons)
200 km x 98 deg (1)
500 km x 98 deg (2)
GTO
Payload
(metric tons)
200x35,958 km
x 28.5 deg
Escape Payload
(metric tons)
C3=0 km2/s2
Configuration LIftoff
Height
(meters)
Liftoff
Mass
(metric
tons)
CZ-2C/SD 2.8 t 0.75 t (1)     CZ-2C stg1
+ CZ-2C stg2
+ Smart Dispenser
40 m 213 t
CZ-2D 3.5 t 2.0 t (1)     CZ-4A stg 1&2 37.7m 232 t
CZ-2E 9.5 t   3.37 t   CZ-2E stgs 1-3
+ 4xCZ-2E stg 0
49.7 m 460 t
CZ-2F 8.4 t       CZ-2E stgs 1&2
+ 4xCZ-2E stg 0
+ Shenzhou
62 m 464 t
CZ-3A 6.0 t 5.0 t (2) 2.6 t 1.4 t CZ-3A stgs 1-3 52.52 m 242 t
CZ-3B 11.2 t 6.8 t (2) 5.1 t 3.3 t CZ-3A stgs 1&3
+ CZ-3B stg 2
+ 4xCZ-3B stg 0
54.838 m 426 t
CZ-3BE 11.5 t 7.0 t (2) 5.5 t 3.5 t CZ-3BE Stg 1
+ CZ-3A stgs 2-3
+ 4xCZ-3BE stg 0
57.06 m 456 t
CZ-3C 9.1 t 6.4 t (2) 3.8 t 2.2 t CZ-3A stgs 1&3
+ CZ-3B stg 2
+ 2xCZ-3B stg 0
54.838 m 345 t
CZ-3CE ~9.2 t ~6.5 t (2) 3.9 t ~2.3 t CZ-3BE Stg 1
+ CZ-3A stgs 2-3
+ 2xCZ-3BE stg 0
57.06 m ~366 t
CZ-4B 4.2 t 2.8 t 1.5 t   CZ-4A stg 1&2
+ CZ-4B stg 3
45.8 m 249 t
CZ-4C 4.2 t 2.8 t 1.5 t   CZ-4A stg 1&2
+ CZ-4C stg 3
45.8 m 249 t


Vehicle Components

  CZ-2C
Stage 1
CZ-2C
Stage 2
CZ-2E
Stage 0
CZ-2E
Stage 1
CZ-2E
Stage 2
CZ-2E
Stage 3
CZ-3A
Stage 1
CZ-3A
Stage 2
Diameter (m) 3.35 m 3.35 m 2.25 m 3.35 m 3.35 m 1.7 m 3.35 m 3.35 m
Length (m) 20.52 m 7.5 m 15.33 m 23.7 m 15.52 m 3.1 m 23.272m 11.276 m
Propellant Mass (tons) 143 t 35 t 37.8 t 187 t 86 t 5.23 t 171.8 t 32.6 t
Total Mass (tons) 153 t 39 t 41 t 196.5 t 91.5 t 5.99 t ~181 t 36.6 t
Engine YF20 YF22/23 YF20B YF20B YF 25/23 EPKM YF21C YF24E
Engine Mfgr                
Fuel UDMH UDMH UDMH UDMH UDMH Solid UDMH UDMH
Oxidizer N2O4 N2O4 N2O4 N2O4 N2O4   N2O4 N2O4
Thrust
(SL tons)
284 t   75.5 t 302 t     302 t  
Thrust
(Vac tons)
306 t 77.7 t 83.2 t 333 t 84.7 t 12 t 333 t 80.5 t
ISP (SL sec)             260.7 s  
ISP (Vac sec) 289 s 295 s 289 s 289 s 298 s 298 s 289 s 298 s
Burn Time (sec) 128 s 130 s 128 s 166 s 295 s 135 s 146.4 s 110/120 s
No. Engines 4 1 1 4 1 1 4 1 +
4 verniers


Vehicle Components Cont'd

  CZ-3A
Stage 3
CZ-3B
Stage 0
CZ-3BE
Stage 0
CZ-3BE
Stage 1
CZ-4A
Stage 1
CZ-4A
Stage 2
CZ-4B
Stage 3
CZ-4C
Stage 3
Diameter (m) 3 m 2.25 m 2.25 m 3.35 m 3.35 m 3.35 m 2.9 m 2.9 m
Length (m) 12.375 m 15.326 m 16.094 m 24.76 m 24.66 m 10.41 m 6.24 m 6.24 m
Propellant Mass (tons) 18.2 t 37.7 t 41.1 t 186.2 t 183.2 t 35.55 t ~14 t ~14 t
Total Mass (tons) 21 t ~41 t ~45 t ~196 t 192.7 t 39.55 t ~16 t ~16 t
Engine YF75 YF25 YF25 YF21C YF20B YF25/23 YF40B YF40B
restartable
Engine Mfgr                
Fuel LH2 UDMH UDMH UDMH UDMH UDMH UDMH UDMH
Oxidizer LOX N2O4 N2O4 N2O4 N2O4 N2O4 N2O4 N2O4
Thrust
(SL tons)
  75.5 t 75.5 t 302 t 302 t      
Thrust
(Vac tons)
17 t 83.2 t 83.2 t 333 t 333 t 84.7 t 10.3 t 10.3 t
ISP (SL sec)   260.7 s 260.7 s 260.7 t        
ISP (Vac sec) 438 s 289 s 289 s 289 s 289 s 295 s 306 s 306 s
Burn Time (sec) 475 s 127.2 s 140.1 s 157.5 s 170 s 135 s 412 s 412 s
No. Engines 2 1 1 4 4 1 2 2


DF-5 Based Vehicle Orbital Launch History

Annual Summary of DF-5 Based Orbital Vehicles
List of DF-5 Based Failure Causes

DATE     VEHICLE           ID      PAYLOAD                 MASS(t) SITE*      ORBIT*
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
08/10/72 FB-1                      R&D suborbital                  JQ 2/138   SUB

09/18/73 FB-1              70103   JSSW                     1.1    JQ 2/138  [FTO]

07/14/74 FB-1              70104   JSSW                     1.1    JQ 2/138  [FTO]
11/05/74 CZ-2A             Y1      FSW-0                    1.8    JQ 2/138  [FTO][1]

07/26/75 FB-1              70105?  JSSW 1 (CK-1 1)          1.1    JQ 2/138   LEO
11/26/75 CZ-2A             Y2      FSW-0 1                  1.8    JQ 2/138   LEO
12/16/75 FB-1              70106   JSSW 2 (CK-1 2)          1.1    JQ 2/138   LEO

08/30/76 FB-1              70107   JSSW 3 (CK-1 3)          1.1    JQ 2/138   LEO
11/10/76 FB-1              70108   JSSW                     1.1    JQ 2/138  [FTO]
12/07/76 CZ-2A             Y3      FSW-0 2                  1.8    JQ 2/138   LEO

09/14/77 FB-1                      suborbital test                 JQ 2/138   SUB

01/26/78 CZ-2A             Y4      FSW-0 3                  1.8    JQ 2/138   LEO
04/16/78 FB-1                      suborbital test                 JQ 2/138   SUB

07/27/79 FB-1              XCZ102  SJ 1/1A/1B               0.663  JQ 2/138  [FTO]

09/19/81 FB-1              XCZ102? SJ 2/2A/2B               0.663  JQ 2/138   LEO

09/09/82 CZ-2C             Y1      FSW-0 4                  1.8    JQ 2/138   LEO

08/19/83 CZ-2C             Y2      FSW-0 5                  1.8    JQ 2/138   LEO

01/29/84 CZ-3              Y1      DFH-2 1 (STTW T1)               XC 1      [EEO][2]
04/08/84 CZ-3              Y2      DFH-2 2 (STTW T2)               XC 1       GTO [3]
09/12/84 CZ-2C             Y802403 FSW-0 6                  1.8    JQ 2/138   LEO

10/21/85 CZ-2C             Y802404 FSW-0 7                  1.8    JQ 2/138   LEO

02/01/86 CZ-3              Y3      DFH-2A 1 (STTW 1)               XC 1       GTO
10/06/86 CZ-2C             Y802605 FSW-0 8                  1.8    JQ 2/138   LEO

08/05/87 CZ-2C             Y802706 FSW-0 9                  1.8    JQ 2/138   LEO
09/09/87 CZ-2C             Y7      FSW-1 1                  2.1    JQ 2/138   LEO

03/07/88 CZ-3              Y4      DFH-2A 2 (STTW 2, ZX 1)         XC 1       GTO
08/05/88 CZ-2C             Y8      FSW-1 2                  2.1    JQ 2/138   LEO
09/06/88 CZ-4              Y1      FY 1A                           TY 7       LEO/S
12/22/88 CZ-3              Y5      DFH-2A 3 (STTW 3, ZX 2)         XC 1       GTO

02/04/90 CZ-3              Y6      DFH-2A 4 (STTW 4, ZX 3)  1.024  XC 1       GTO 
04/07/90 CZ-3              Y7      AsiaSat 1                1.442  XC 1       GTO [4]
07/16/90 CZ-2E             Y1      Badr 1/Optus Mass Sim    7.4    XC 2       LEO [5]
09/03/90 CZ-4              Y2      FY 1B / QQW 1 / QQW 2    0.889  TY 7       LEO/S
10/05/90 CZ-2C             Y902009 FSW-1 3                  2.1    JQ 2/138   LEO

12/28/91 CZ-3              Y9      DFH-2A 5 (STTW 5, ZX 4)  1.025  XC 1      [EEO][6]

08/09/92 CZ-2D             Y1      FSW-2 1                  2.4    JQ 2/138   LEO
08/13/92 CZ-2E             Y3      Optus B1/Star-63F        7.65   XC 2       LEO [7]
10/06/92 CZ-2C             Y903210 FSW-1 4 / Freja          2.36   JQ 2/138   LEO
12/21/92 CZ-2E             Y4      Optus B2/Star-63F        7.65   XC 2      [LEO][8]

10/08/93 CZ-2C             Y11     FSW-1 5                  2.1    JQ 2/138

02/08/94 CZ-3A             Y901201 KF 1 / SJ 4              2.0    XC 2       GTO [9]
07/03/94 CZ-2D             Y2      FSW-2 2                  2.6    JQ 2/138   LEO
07/21/94 CZ-3              Y8      APStar 1                 1.383  XC 1       GTO
08/27/94 CZ-2E             Y5      Optus B3/Star-63F        7.65   XC 2       LEO [7]
11/29/94 CZ-3A             Y901302 DFH-3 1 (ZX 6)           2.23   XC 2       GTO

01/25/95 CZ-2E             Y6      APStar 2/Star 63F        7.65   XC 2      [FTO][10]
11/28/95 CZ-2E/EPKM        Y7      AsiaSat 2                3.485  XC 2       GTO
12/28/95 CZ-2E/EPKM        Y8      Echostar 1               3.315  XC 2       GTO

02/14/96 CZ-3B             Y1      Intelsat 708             4.576  XC 2      [FTO][11]
07/03/96 CZ-3              Y10A    APStar 1A                1.4    XC 1       GTO
08/18/96 CZ-3              Y14     ZX 7                     1.618  XC 1      [LEO][12]
10/20/96 CZ-2D             Y3      FSW-2 3                  2.6    JQ 2/138   LEO

05/11/97 CZ-3A             Y?      DFH-3 2 (ZX 8)           2.23   XC 2       GTO
06/10/97 CZ-3              Y11     FY 2A                    1.38   XC 1       GTO
08/19/97 CZ-3B             Y2      Agila 2                  2.56   XC2        GTO
09/01/97 CZ-2C/SD          Y1      Iridium MFS 1/2          1.4    TY 7       LEO [13]
10/18/97 CZ-3B             Y3      APStar 2R                3.747  XC 2       GTO
12/08/97 CZ-2C/SD          Y2      Iridium SV 42/44         1.4    TY 7       LEO

03/25/98 CZ-2C/SD          Y3      Iridium SV 51,61         1.4    TY 7       LEO
05/02/98 CZ 2C/SD          Y4      Iridium SV 69,71         1.4    TY 7       LEO
05/30/98 CZ-3B             Y5      Zhongwei 1               2.984  XC 2       GTO 
07/18/98 CZ-3B             Y4      Sinosat                  2.84   XC 2       GTO 
08/19/98 CZ-2C/SD          Y5      Iridium SV 3,76          1.4    TY 7       LEO 
12/19/98 CZ-2C/SD          Y6      Iridium SV 11/20         1.4    TY 7       LEO     

05/10/99 CZ-4B             Y2      Fengyun 1C/Shijian 5     1.26   TY 7       LEO/S
06/11/99 CZ-2C/SD          Y7      Iridium SV 14A/21A       1.4    TY 7       LEO/P 
10/14/99 CZ-4B             Y1      Ziyuan-1/SACI-1          1.51   TY 7       LEO/S 
11/19/99 CZ-2F             Y1      Shenzhou 1 (UM)          7.8    JQ 43/621  LEO [14]  

01/25/00 CZ-3A             Y4      Zhongxing 22             2.31   XC 2       GTO+
06/25/00 CZ-3              Y12     Fengyun 2                1.38   XC 1       GTO
09/01/00 CZ-4B             Y3      ZY-2                            TY 7       LEO/S
10/30/00 CZ-3A             Y5      Beidou 1A (navsat)       2.2    XC 2       EEO
12/20/00 CZ-3A             Y6      Beidou 1B                2.2    XC 2       GTO

01/09/02 CZ-2F             Y2      Shenzhou 2 (UM)          7.8    JQ 43/621  LEO [14] 

03/25/02 CZ-2F             Y3      Shenzhou-3 (UM)          7.8    JQ 43/621  LEO [14]
05/15/02 CZ-4B             Y5      FengYun-1D/Haiyang-1     1.32   TY 7       LEO/S
10/27/02 CZ-4B             Y6      ZiYuan-2                        TY 7       LEO/S
12/29/02 CZ-2F             Y4      Shenzhou 4 (UM)          7.8    JQ 43/621  LEO [14] 

05/24/03 CZ-3A             Y7      Beidou                   2.20   XC 2       GTO+
10/15/03 CZ-2F             Y5      Shenzhou 5 (1 crew)      7.80   JQ 43/921  LEO [15]
10/21/03 CZ-4B             Y4      CBERS 2                  1.55   TY 7       LEO/S
11/03/03 CZ-2D             Y4      FSW-18                          JQ 43/603  LEO
11/14/03 CZ-3A             Y8      Zhongxing-20             2.30   XC 2       GTO+
12/29/03 CZ-2C/SM(CTS)     Y1      DoubleStar 1             0.66   XC 1       EEO

04/18/04 CZ-2C             Y14     Tansuo 1/Naxing 1        0.23   XC 1       LEO/P
07/25/04 CZ-2C/SM          Y2      Tan Ce 2                 0.7    TY 7       EEO/P
08/29/04 CZ-2C             Y12     JB-4                     2.0    JQ 43/603  LEO
09/08/04 CZ-4B             Y7      SJ-6A/6B                 1.2    TY 7       LEO/P
09/27/04 CZ-2D             Y5      FSW-20                   3.0    JQ 43/603  LEO
10/19/04 CZ-3A             Y9      FY-2C                    1.4    XC 2       GTO
11/06/04 CZ-4B             Y8      ZY-2C                    1.2    TY 7       LEO
11/18/04 CZ-2C             Y15     Shiyun Weixing 2         0.3    XC 1       LEO/S

04/12/05 CZ-3B             Y6      Apstar 6                 4.7    XC 2       GTO
07/05/05 CZ-2D             Y6      Shijian-7                       JQ 43/603  LEO/s
08/02/05 CZ-2C/3           Y13     FSW-21                   3.0    JQ 43/603  LEO
08/29/05 CZ-2D             Y7      FSW-22                   3.0    JQ 43/603  LEO
10/12/05 CZ-2F             Y6      Shenzhou 6 (2 crew)      7.84   JQ 43/921  LEO [16]

04/26/06 CZ-4B             Y1      Yaogan 1                 2.7    TY 7       LEO/S
09/09/06 CZ-2C             Y16     Shi Jian 8               2.0?   JQ 43/603  LEO   
09/12/06 CZ-3A             Y10     Zhongxing 22A            2.31   XC 2       GTO
10/23/06 CZ-4B             Y10     Shijian 6-2A & 6-2B      2.4    TY 7       LEO/P
10/28/06 CZ-3B             Y7      Xinnuo-2 (Sinosat-2)     5.10   XC 2       GTO
12/08/06 CZ-3A             Y11     Fengyun 2D               1.39   XC 2       GTO

02/02/07 CZ-3A             Y12     Beidou-4                 2.2    XC 2       GTO
04/11/07 CZ-2C             Y18     Haiyang 1B (Ocean 1B)    0.36   TY 7       LEO/S
04/13/07 CZ-3A             Y13     Compass                  2.2?   XC 3       MTO
05/13/07 CZ-3BE            Y9      NigComSat 1              5.15   XC 2       GTO
05/25/07 CZ-2D             Y8      Yaogan 2 radarsat        3.50?  JQ 43/603  LEO/S
05/31/07 CZ-3A             Y15     SinoSat 3                2.2    XC 3       GTO
07/05/07 CZ-3B             Y10     Xhongxing-6B             4.6    XC 2       GTO
09/19/07 CZ-4B             Y17     CBERS-2B                 1.452  TY 7       LEO/S
10/24/07 CZ-3A             Y14     Chang'e-1 (Lunar Orb)    2.3    XC 3       EEO [17]
11/11/07 CZ-4C             Y3      Yaogan 3                 2.7    TY 7       LEO/S

04/25/08 CZ-3C             Y1      Tian Lian 1              3.0?   XC 2       GTO
05/27/08 CZ-4C             Y2      Feng Yun-3A              2.295  TY 7       LEO/S
06/09/08 CZ-3B             Y11     Chinasat 9               4.5    XC 2       GTO
09/06/08 CZ-2C             Y1      HJ-1A, HJ-1B                    TY 7       LEO/S
09/25/08 CZ-2F             Y7      Shenzhou 7               7.84   JQ 43/921  LEO  [18]
10/25/08 CZ-4B             Y22     SJ-6E/SJ-6F              2.4    TY 9       LEO/S[19]
10/29/08 CZ-3BE            Y12     Simon Bolivar            5.1    XC 2       GTO
11/05/08 CZ-2D             Y12     Shiyan 3/Chuangxin 1-02  0.292  JQ 43/603  LEO/S
12/01/08 CZ-2D             Y9      Yaogan 4                        JQ 43/603  LEO/S
12/15/08 CZ-4B             Y20     Yaogan 5                 2.2?   TY 9       LEO/S
12/23/08 CZ-3A             Y20     Feng Yun 2-06            1.39   XC 3       GTO

04/14/09 CZ-3C             Y3      Beidou-G2                3.1?   XC 2       GTO
04/22/09 CZ-2C             Y19     Yaogan 6                        TY 7       LEO/S
08/31/09 CZ-3B             Y8      Palapa D1                4.1    XC 2      [EEO] [20]
11/12/09 CZ-2C             Y21     Shijian 11-01                   JQ 43/603  LEO/S
12/09/09 CZ-2D             Y10     Yaogan 7                        JQ 43/603  LEO/S
12/15/09 CZ-4C             Y4      Yaogan 8                 1.04   TY 9       LEO/S

01/16/10 CZ-3C             Y2      Beidou 3C                       XC 2       GTO
03/05/10 CZ-4C             Y5      Yaogan 9                 2.8?   JQ 43/603  LEO [29]
06/02/10 CZ-3C             Y4      Beidou 3G                       XC 2       GTO
06/15/10 CZ-2D             Y15     SJ-12                           JQ 43/603  LEO/S
07/31/10 CZ-3A             Y16     Beidou 2-5                      XC 3       GTO/i
08/09/10 CZ-4C             Y6      Yaogan 10                2.7?   TY 9       LEO/S
08/24/10 CZ-2D             Y14     Tianhui 1                       JQ 43/603  LEO/S
09/04/10 CZ-3BE            Y13     Chinasat 6A             ~5.00   XC 2       GTO+
09/22/10 CZ-2D             Y11     Yaogan Weixing 11               JQ 43/603  LEO/S
10/01/10 CZ-3C             Y7      Chang'e 2                2.5    XC 2       HTO [21]
10/06/10 CZ-4B             Y23     Shijian 6 4A/4B         ~2.0    TY 9       LEO/S
10/31/10 CZ-3C             Y5      Beidou 2-G4                     XC 2       GTO
11/04/10 CZ-4C             Y7      FY-3B                    2.2    TY 9       LEO/S
11/24/10 CZ-3A             Y21     Zhongxing 20A            2.3    XC 3       GTO+
12/17/10 CZ-3A             Y18     Beidou 2 (Compass 2I2)          XC 3       GTO/i

04/09/11 CZ-3A             Y19     Beidou 8                        XC 3       GTO/i
06/20/11 CZ-3BE            Y20     Zhongxing 10            ~5.1    XC 2       GTO+
07/06/11 CZ-2C             Y25     SJ 11-03                        JQ 43/603  LEO/S
07/11/11 CZ-3C             Y8      TL I-01                         XC 2       GTO/+
07/26/11 CZ-3A             Y17     Beidou 9 (2-I4)         ~1.7    XC 3       GTO/i
07/29/11 CZ-2C             Y24     ShiJian 11-02                   JQ 43/603  LEO/S
08/11/11 CZ-3BE            Y19     Paksat 1R                4.99   XC 2       GTO+
08/15/11 CZ-4B             Y14     Haiyang 2                       TY 9       LEO/S
08/18/11 CZ-2C             Y26     ShiJian 11-04                   JQ 43/603 [FTO][22]
09/18/11 CZ-3BE            Y16     Chinasat 1A              5.2    XC 2       GTO
09/29/11 CZ-2FT            T1      Tiangong 1               8.5    JQ 43/921  LEO [23]
10/07/11 CZ-3BE            Y18     W3C                      5.4    XC 2       GTO
10/31/11 CZ-2F             Y8      Shenzhou 8               8.08   JQ 43/921  LEO [23]
11/09/11 CZ-4B             Y21     Yaogan 12                       TY 9       LEO/S
11/20/11 CZ-2D             Y19     Chuangxin 1-03/Shiyan 4         JQ 43/603  LEO/S
11/29/11 CZ-2C             Y20     Yaogan 13                       TY 9       LEO/S
12/01/11 CZ-3A             Y23     Beidou 10 (2-I5)        ~1.7    XC 3       GTO/i
12/17/11 CZ-3BE            Y21     NigComSat 1R             5.15   XC 2       GTO
12/22/11 CZ-4B             Y15     Ziyuan I-02C             2.1    TY 9       LEO/S

01/09/12 CZ-4B             Y26     Ziyuan 3                 2.65   TY 9       LEO/S
01/13/12 CZ-3A             Y22     Fengyun 2-07(F)                 XC 3       GTO
02/24/12 CZ-3C             Y6      Beidou 11 (2G5)          3.8    XC 2       GTO
03/31/12 CZ-3BE            Y22     Apstar 7                 5.054  XC 2       GTO
04/30/12 CZ-3B             Y14     Compass M3/M4           ~4.0    XC 2       MTO
05/06/12 CZ-2D             Y17     Tianhui I-02                    JQ 43/603  LEO/S
05/10/12 CZ-4B             Y12     Yaogan 14/Tiantuo 1             TY 9       LEO/S
05/26/12 CZ-3BE            Y17     Xhongxing 2A             5.4?   XC 2       GTO
05/29/12 CZ-4C             Y10     Yaogan 15                2.8?   TY 9       LEO/S
06/16/12 CZ-2F/G           Y9      Shenzhou 9               7.7    JQ 43/921  LEO [24]
07/25/12 CZ-3C             Y9      Tianlian-1 (3)           2.462  XC 2       GTO+
09/18/12 CZ-3B             Y15     Beidou M5/M6            ~4.0    XC 2       MTO
09/29/12 CZ-2D             Y16     VRSS 1                          JQ 43/603  LEO/S
10/14/12 CZ-2C             Y2      Shijian 9 (2sats)               TY 9       LEO/P
10/25/12 CZ-3C             Y10     Beidou G6                3.8    XC 2       GTO
11/18/12 CZ-2C             Y17     Huanjing 1C                     TY 9       LEO/S
11/24/12 CZ-4C             Y9      Yaogan 16                       JQ 43/603  LEO [29]
11/27/12 CZ-3BE            Y24     Zhongxing 12             5.0    XC 2       GTO
12/18/12 CZ-2D             Y22     Gokturk 2                0.45   JQ 43/603  LEO/S

04/26/13 CZ-2D             Y18     GaoFen 1                        JQ 43/603  LEO/S
05/01/13 CZ-3BE            Y25     Chinasat 11                     XC 2       GTO
06/11/13 CZ-2F             Y10     Shenzhou 10              7.7    JQ 43/921  LEO [25]
07/15/13 CZ-2C             Y23     Shijian 11-05                   JQ 43/603  LEO/S
07/19/13 CZ-4C             CZ4C10  SH 15, SW 7, CX 3               TY 9       LEO/S
09/01/13 CZ-4C             Y13     Yaogan Weixing 17               JQ 43/603  LEO [29]
09/23/13 CZ-4C             Y12     Fengyun 3C               2.45   TY 9       LEO/S
10/25/13 CZ-4B             Y25     Shijian 16                      JQ 43/603  LEO
10/29/13 CZ-2C             CZ2C40  Yaogan 18                       TY 9       LEO/S
11/20/13 CZ-4C             CZ4C13  Yaogan 19               ~1.10   TY 9       LEO/S
11/25/13 CZ-2D             CZ2D20  SY 5                            JQ 43/603  LEO/SSS
12/01/13 CZ-3BE            CZ3B25  Chang'e 3                1.34   XC 2       EEO [26]
12/09/13 CZ-4B             Y10     CBERS-3                  2.1    TY 9      [FTO][27]
12/20/13 CZ-3BE            Y27     Tupac Katari             5.1    XC 2       GTO 

03/31/14 CZ-2C             CZ2C41  Shijian 11-06           ~1      JQ 43/603  LEO/S
08/09/14 CZ-4C             Y14     Yaogan 20                       JQ 43/603  LEO [29]
08/19/14 CZ-4B             Y27     Gaofen 2/BRITE-PL-2     ~2      TY 9       LEO/S
09/04/14 CZ-2D             CZ2D21  CX 1-04/Ling Qiao               JQ 43/603  LEO/S
09/08/14 CZ-4B             Y28     Yaogan 21/Tiantuo 2             TY 9       LEO/S
09/28/14 CZ-2C             Y31     Shijian 11-07           ~1      JQ 43/603  LEO/S
10/20/14 CZ-4C                     Yaogan 22               ~2      TY 9       LEO/S
10/23/14 CZ-3CE                    Chang'e-5-T1                    XC 2       EEO [28]
10/27/14 CZ-2C                     Shijian 11-08           ~1      JQ 43/603  LEO/S
11/14/14 CZ-2C                     Yaogan 23               ~1      TY 9       LEO/S
11/20/14 CZ-2D             CZ2D22  Yaogan 24               ~1      JQ 43/603  LEO/S
12/07/14 CZ-4B             Y32     CBERS 4                  1.98   TY 9       LEO/S
12/10/14 CZ-4C                     Yaogan 25                       JQ 43/603  LEO [29]
12/27/14 CZ-4B                     Yaogan 26               ~2      TY 9       LEO/S
12/31/14 CZ-3A             Y24     Fengyun 2-08(G)         ~1.4    XC 2       GTO

03/30/15 CZ-3C/YZ-1        Y11     Beidou 17 (3I-1)         0.85   XC 2       GEO/I[30]
06/26/15 CZ-4B                     Gaofen 8                        TY 9       LEO/S
07/25/15 CZ-3B/YZ-1        Y26     Beidou 3M1S/3M2S         2.028  XC 2       MEO
08/27/15 CZ-4C                     Yaogan 27                1.04   TY 9       LEO/S 
09/12/15 CZ-3B/E           CZ3B28  TJSW 1                          XC 2       GTO
09/14/15 CZ-2D             CZ2D23  Gaofen 9                        JQ 43/603  LEO/S
09/29/15 CZ-3B/E           CZ3B29  Beidou 20 (BD3 I2S)      4.2    XC 3       GTO/i
10/07/15 CZ-2D             CZ2D24  Jilin 1                  0.664  JQ 43/603  LEO/S 
10/16/15 CZ-3B/E           CZ3B30  APStar 9                ~4.0    XC 2       GTO 
10/26/15 CZ-2D             CZ2D25  Tianhua 1C                      JQ 43/603  LEO/S 
11/03/15 CZ-3B/E           CZ3B31  Zhongxing 2C            ~5.1?   XC 3       GTO
11/08/15 CZ-4B                     Yaogan 28               ~2      TY 9       LEO/S
11/20/15 CZ-3B/E           Y38     LaoSat 1                 4.6    XC 2       GTO
11/26/15 CZ-4C                     Yaogan 29               ~2      TY 9       LEO/S
12/09/15 CZ-3B/E           CZ3B33  Zhongxing 1C            ~5.2?   XC 3       GTO 
12/17/15 CZ-2D             CZ2D26  DAMPE (Wukong)           1.9    JQ 43/603  LEO/S
12/28/15 CZ-3B/E           CZ3B34  Gaofen 4                 4.6    XC 2       GTO

01/15/16 CZ-3B/E           CZ3B35  Belintersat 1            5.223  XC 3       GTO
02/01/16 CZ-3C/YZ-1                Beidou M3-S              1.014  XC 2       MEO
03/29/16 CZ-3A             Y26     Beidou 22 (2 I6)                XC 2       GTO/i
04/05/16 CZ-2D             Y36     Shijian 10               3.600  JQ 43/603  LEO
05/15/16 CZ-2D             Y27     Yaogan 30               ~2.0    JQ 43/603  LEO/S
05/30/16 CZ-4B                     Ziyuan 3-2               2.63   TY 9       LEO/S
06/12/16 CZ-3C                     Beidou-2 G7                     XC 3       GTO
06/29/16 CZ-4B             Y35     Shijian 16-2                    JQ 43/603  LEO
08/05/16 CZ-3B/E           CZ3B36  Tiantong 1                      XC 3       GTO
08/09/16 CZ-4C                     Gaofen 3                 2.95   TY 9       LEO/S
08/15/16 CZ-2D             Y32     Quantum Science          0.6+   JQ 43/603  LEO/S
08/31/16 CZ-4C                     Gaofen 10                       TY 9      [FTO][31]
09/15/16 CZ-2FT            T2      Tiangong 2               8.5    JQ 43/921  LEO
10/16/16 CZ-2FY            Y11     Shenzhou 11              7.7    JQ 43/921  LEO/TG2
11/11/16 CZ-2D             CZ2D30  Yunhai 1                        JQ 43/603  LEO/S
11/22/16 CZ-3C/E                   Tianlian 1-4            ~2.46   XC 2       GTO
12/10/16 CZ-3B/E           Y42     Fengyun 4A                      XC 3       GTO
12/21/16 CZ-2D             Y33     TanSat                   0.62   JQ 43/603  LEO/S
12/28/16 CZ-2D             CZ2D32  SuperView-1 1/2          1.12   TY 9      [EEO][32]

01/05/17 CZ-3B/E           CZ3B38  TJSW 2                          XC 2       GTO
04/12/17 CZ-3B/E           Y43     Chinasat 16              4.6    XC 2       GTO
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTES:
[1] 2nd stage lost thrust.

[2] First China liquid hydrogen third stage.  First GTO attempt.  Third stage failed 
     during 2nd burn.

[3] First successful China GTO mission for GEO satellite.  First LH2 success.

[4]  First CZ launch of U.S. built satellite.  Asiasat 1 was Hughes HS 376 model that 
      was originally launched by STS as Westar 6 in 1984, but was stranded in LEO when 
      its PKM failed.  Satellite was recovered during 1984 STS-51A mission and resold 
      by Hughes. 

[5] CZ-3E maiden flight placed mass simulator for Star-63F/Optus payload into LEO.  
      Also orbited 52 kg Badr 1 microsatellite for Pakistan.

[6]  Premature 3rd stage shutdown left satellite in unusable orbit.

[7] CZ-3E rocket placed Star-63F motor and satellite into LEO.  Star-63F fired 
      to reach GTO.  Satellite put itself into GEO.  Satellites were HS-601 series, 
      weighing 1.651 tonnes in GEO, 2.858 tonnes at separation from Star-63F.  
      Star-63F solid motor weighed 4.59 tonnes at liftoff.

[8] Payload fairing failed T+45 seconds.  Pieces of damaged, nonfunctiong 
      satellite and Star 63F kick motor reach LEO.  China said satellite exploded.  
      Hughes (Optus manufacturer) said fairing failed.  No agreement on cause.

[9]  Maiden flight of CZ-3A.  Placed 1.6 tonne KF-1 dummysat and 0.4 tonne SJ 4 
      into GTO. 

[10]  Exploded at T+51 seconds due to wind shear.  Payload fairing failure.  Hughes, 
      manufacturer of this HS-601 satellite, found the cause to be "the deficiency 
      in the fairing longitudinal split line design requirements and/or design".  
      Hughes also concluded that the same failure caused loss of Optus B2 in 
      December 1992.  The findings, and recommended design changes, were given to 
      China's launch vehicle team, which violated U.S. export control laws.  The 
      resulting scandal eventually ended CZ launches of U.S. built satellites. 

[11] Maiden flight of CZ-3B.  Veered at liftoff and crashed near pad.  Failure 
       of guidance inertial measurement unit amplifier. 

[12] First U.S. built satellite for China.  HS-376 comsat.  Left in unusable LEO 
      when third stage shut down prematurely.

[13] Iridium mass simulators (two) on vehicle configuraiton test flight.

[14] Unmanned test of CZ-2F and Shenzhou spacecraft.

[15] Crewed flight with China's first astronaut, Yang Liwei.

[16] Carried two astronauts.

[17] China's first robotic lunar orbiter.

[18] Three astronauts.  Zhai Zhigang and Liu Boming performed China's first space 
      walk.

[19] First use of new launch pad at Taiyaun.

[20] Failure during second Stg 3 burn left sat in 221x21135x22.3deg orbit, about 
      350-400 m/s short of planned GTO.   

[21] China's 2nd lunar orbiter.

[22] Failed to Orbit.  2nd stg failure.  Steering vernier failed.

[23] Tiangong 1 space laboratory launch by CZ-2FT.  Unmanned Shenzhou 8 spacecraft 
       automatically docked with Tiangong 1 twice during its six week mission.

[24] Shenzhou 9 with three crew was first crew to dock with Tiangong 1 space station.  
       Docked from June 18 to June 29.  Crew included first Chinese female 
       astronaut, Liu Yang.
 
[25] Shenzhou 10 with crew of three docked with Tiangong 1 from June 13 to June 26.

[26] China's first robotic lunar landing.  Carried Yutu rover.  First landing attempt 
       since Luna 24, 1976.

[27] Planned 786 km sun synchronous orbit not achieved. 3rd stage cutoff early.

[28] Lunar free return trajectory.  Lunar sample return reentry vehicle test.

[29] Multiple satellite array for sigint (naval tracking) to ~1,100 km x 64.4 deg.

[30] First YZ-1, which fired twice to reach inclined GEO.[31] Planned LEO/S not achieved.  
      Cause not announced. Stg 3 problem suspected.

[32] First CZ-2D launch from Taiyuan.  220x540km versus planned 500km circular.
      1st stage and PLF both separated about 7 seconds late.


* ABBREVIATIONS

 FTO  Failed to Orbit
[EEO] Unintended Eliptical Earth Orbit
[GTO] Unintended Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit
[LEO] Unintended Low Earth Orbit

DF    Dong Feng (ballistic missile)
FB    Feng Bao (based on DF-5 missile)
CZ    Chang Zheng (Long March) (CZ-2, 3, and 4 based on DF-5 missile, 
                                 CZ-1 based on DF-3 missile)
KT    Kaitouzha (based on DF-31 missile)

JQ    Jiuquan (57-70 deg inclination orbits, recoverable payloads)
XC    Xichang Space Center (GTO launch site, supports LH2 stages)
TY    Taiyuan Space Center (LEO polar or sun synchronous orbits) 

CK    Changkong
FH    Feng Huo
FSW   Fanhui Shi Weixing (recoverable satellite)
FY    Fengyun
HJ    Huan Jing 
JSSW  Ji Shu Shiyan Weixing
KF    Kuafu
QQW   Qi Qui Weixing
SJ    Shi Jian (Practice)
STTW  Shiyan Tongbu Tongxin Weixing
ZW    Zhongwei (Chinastar)
ZX    Zhongxing


References

Long March Users Manuals, CALT, 1999
LM-3A Series Launch Vehicle, Users Manual, 2011

 Last Update:  April 12, 2017