Space Launch Report:  Proton Data Sheet
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93505s.jpg (8249 bytes)Proton

Vehicle Configurations

Vehicle Components

All-Time Proton Launch Log

Proton M/Briz M Launches Protostar 2 in 2009

Proton History

Krunichev Space Research and Production Space Center's Proton has long been Russia's heaviest-lifting orbital launch vehicle.   Originally part of the Soviet Union's human lunar exploration program during the Cold War "space race", Proton quickly shifted to unmanned exploration service, where it launched a number of historic "first" missions to the Moon, to Mars, and to Venus.  During the 1970s, Proton began a long period of steady work launching defense and government satellites to geosynchronous orbit.  Since the end of the Cold War, Proton has built a substantial commercial launch business.

Proton was originally developed by the Chelomei design bureau during the 1960s.  Since it was initially pitched to the Kremlin as a potential two-stage super-ICBM named UR-500, it was designed to use storable hypergolic propellants (nitrogen tetroxide and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine).  Valentin Glusko developed the world's then most-advanced rocket engine, the 150 tonne thrust staged-combustion cycle RD-253, to power the rocket's first stage.  Four staged combustion Kosberg engines upgraded from Chelomei's UR-200 ICBM first stage engines to produce more than 60 tonnes of thrust each, powered the second stage.

UR-500 was quickly reoriented toward space flight, and a third stage, powered by one of the second stage engines, was added to create the UR-500K orbital launch vehicle for the USSR's manned lunar program.  Two-stage UR-500 performed four initial test flights during 1965-66, orbiting a series of 12.2 tonne research payloads named "Proton".  The name quickly stuck to the rocket itself.   Three-stage UR-500K (Proton-K) began flying in 1967.  It was capable of lifting more than 19 tonnes to low earth orbit or, with a fourth stage, more than 5 tonnes toward the Moon.  In the West Proton seemed to be the Soviet Union's answer to NASA's Saturn I/IB. 

ur500kl1s.jpg (22976 bytes)UR-500K/L-1 Proton "Zond" Launch Vehicle at Area 81

From 1967 through 1969, Proton-K, topped by a LOX/kerosene Blok D fourth stage from the Korolev design bureau, launched a series of unmanned Zond spacecraft on circumlunar missions.  Zond was designed to carry cosmonauts.  The plan was to send cosmonauts around the Moon before U.S. Apollo astronauts arrived, but both Zond and Proton suffered a series of setbacks that delayed the test program.  Four of the first six test flights suffered Proton or Blok D failures.  Preparations for a seventh launch attempt were halted when a pressurized Blok D oxidizer tank ruptured on the launch pad on July 15, 1968.  The accident killed three workers, but left the Proton K and Zond spacecraft relatively undamaged.   

Another Proton and Zond were prepared and, during September, 1968, Zond 5 became the first spacecraft to circle the Moon and return to Earth.  It carried turtles and other biological specimens, which became the first lifeforms to travel around the moon and return safely to Earth.  Zond 6 flew around the Moon two months later.  Plans to send cosmonauts on the next flight had to be delayed, however, due to problems during the flights.  Zond 5 failed to perform its planned "skip" reentry, leading to a high-g ballistic reentry and a splashdown in the Indian Ocean.  Zond 6 depressurized and suffered a parachute failure.  A successful unmanned Zond flight, Zond 7, did not occur until August, 1969.  By then nine U.S. astronauts had orbited the Moon on Apollos 8, 10, and 11 and two had walked on its surface.  Political leaders decided to drop plans for manned Zond flights, but allowed Proton to launch a final, successful Zond 8 circumlunar mission in 1970. 

The decision had merit.  Only six of the first 20 Proton K/Blok D launches succeeded.  Proton wasn't ready for unmanned service, let alone for launching cosmonauts.  Consistent success did not begin until after flights were halted for a six-month review that culminated in an August, 1970 suborbital Proton K engineering test flight.  Proton went on to score 46 success in 59 flights during the 1970s and a better than 93% success rate during subsequent decades.

protonkvs.jpg (4845 bytes)1984 Proton-K/D-1 Vega Launch

From 1969 through 1976, Proton launched a series of Luna missions to the Moon.  Luna 15 famously attempted, but failed, to land while the U.S. Apollo 11 astronauts were on the Moon during July, 1969.  One year later, Luna 16 performed the first successful robotic lunar sample return and Luna 17 landed with Lunakhood 1, the first robotic rover on another celestial body.  Luna spacecraft continued to regularly land on or orbit the Moon until 1976, when Luna 24 performed a final lunar sample return mission.  It was the last lunar landing until China repeated the accomplishment in 2013, some 37 years later.

During the 1970s and 1980s, Protons boosted missions to Mars and Venus.  In 1971, Mars 2 and 3 became the first spacecraft to orbit the Red Planet and to attempt landings.  Mars 2 crash landed, becoming the first man made object on Mars in 1976.  Sister ship Mars 3 achieved the first soft landing on Mars a few days later, but ceased transmitting data shortly after landing.  In 1975, Venera 9 became the first spacecraft to orbit and land on Venus, and the first to return an image from the surface of another planet.  Sister ship Venera 10 duplicated both feats.  With Proton and Venera, the USSR achieved its greatest planetary exploration successes.  Venera 11 and 12 landed on Venus in 1978, as did Venera 13 and  14 in 1981.  Venera 15 and 16 orbited Venus and mapped portions of its surface with radar in 1983. 

In 1984, a pair of Protons launched Vega 1 and 2 on ambitious, and ultimately very successful, missions to Venus and Comet Halley.  For the first time, Soviet television broadcast footage of a Proton launch.  Never before seen images of the powerful Proton rocket appeared in newspapers and magazines around the world. 

Proton launched a series of space stations for crew, beginning with Salyut 1 in 1971, extending through Salyut 7 in 1982, encompassing Mir during the 1980s-90s, and culminating in the launch of two International Space Station modules during 1998-2000.  But Proton's largest body of work began in 1974 when it used Blok D fourth stages to perform the USSR's first geosynchronous satellite launches.  Soon, Proton was flying a dozen or more times per year, lifting military and civil communications, ELNIT, early warning, and navigation satellites into orbit

After the Cold War ended in 1991, the number of Proton defense launches declined, but growing numbers of Western commercial communication satellite launches soon filled the void.  RSC Energia, Khrunichev, and Lockheed Martin created International Launch Services (ILS) to handle the business.  Lockheed Martin later sold its part of the venture.  The demands of the commercial market led to a series of upgrades that steadily increased Proton's payload capability.  
 

protassys.jpg (27380 bytes)Proton Description

Proton Final Assembly Area at Khrunichev near Moscow

Proton-M, with updated electronics and improved first stage engines, began replacing the original Proton-K model in 2001.  Since then, Proton M has progressed through a series of phased performance improvements that have included weight reduction, better propellant management, engine thrust increases,  and heavier propellant loads.  A fully fueled Proton M with a Briz M fourth stage stands 61 meters tall and now weighs about 705 metric tons.

The three core Proton stages burn hypergolic N2O4/UDMH. The first stage consists of a 20.2 meter long, 4.1 meter diameter central oxidizer tank surrounded by six, 1.7 meter diameter fuel tanks. This arrangement was dictated by clearance limits on railroads that transport the stage hardware from Moscow to Baikonur.   The fuel tanks are shipped separately from the oxidizer tank for finaly assembly at the Cosmodrome.  Each outboard fuel tank carries one RD-253 (Proton K) or RD-275/276 (Proton M) engines. The six engines provide a total of more than 1,000 tons of thrust for about 120 seconds.

Proton's 4.1 meter diameter second stage is powered by four gimbaled RD-210 engines that develop a total of 237 tons thrust for about 215 seconds. The 4.1 meter diameter third stage is powered by a single fixed RD-210 engine that produces 59 tons thrust for about 232 seconds and a four-nozzle vernier/steering engine that produces 11.7 tonnes of vacuum thrust for about 247 seconds.  Proton's flight control system, mounted in the third stage, controls the vehicle during the first three stage burns.

Proton must fly one of three, fixed-ascent trajectories from Baikonur to reach a 200 km parking orbit with an inclination of either 51.6, 64.8 or 72.7 degrees. Launch trajectories are fixed by landing zones for the spent first stage, about 310 km from the Baikonur launch site, and the second stage and payload fairing, about 1,985 km from the launch site.
  

92-1s.jpg (27273 bytes)Proton First and Second Stage Engine Arrangements Visible During Assembly at Baikonur Building 92-1

Typically, the second stage begins a "fire in the hole" ignition 122 seconds after liftoff while still attached to the first stage. After a 215 second burn, the Stage 3 verniers ignite, the second stage engines shut down, six solid second stage retro rockets fire to separate the second and thrid stages, and the third stage engine ignites. The payload fairing is jettisoned a few seconds later.

The third stage main engine shuts down 567 seconds after liftoff. Its verniers burn for another 10 seconds. 595 seconds after liftoff, the Stage 3 retro rockets fire to separate the stage from the upper stage/payload. On most Proton K/DM missions, the third stage injects the upper stage and payload directly into a parking orbit. On Proton-M/Briz-M flights, the third stage does not reach orbital velocity. Instead, Briz-M performs a brief parking orbit injection burn.

Proton is usually topped with a fourth stage to orbit geosynchronous satellites.  Occasionally, a basic three-stage Proton will lift a heavy payload to low earth orbit.  Proton typically uses the Krunichev Briz-M fourth stage, which began replacing the RSC Energia Blok DM fourth stage in 1999.
 

Block DM 

Proton's RSC Energia Block DM fourth stage is derived from the Block D stage developed for the Soviet lunar landing program during the 1960s.  The stage is powered by a restartable 11D58M (RD-58M) gimbaled main engine that burns liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene to deliver 8,5 tons of thrust.  Two storable bipropellant (N2O4/UDMH) "SOZ", or "micro", thruster units located at the base of the stage provide three-axis stabilization during unpowered flight. 

Block DM is built around a spherical LOX tank mounted above a toroidial (doughnut-shaped) kerosene tank.  An equipment bay containing stage guidance, navigation, and control hardware is located above the LOX tank.  The main engine is mounted below, and partially nestled within the center of, the kerosene tank.  A tubular truss structure ties the separate tanks and equipment bay together.  A tapered aft shroud and a cylindrical forward shroud protect Block DM during ascent.   

Several Block DM variants are currently in use.  The Block DM-2, or 11S861, is the standard government version.  It is powered by the RD-58M.  The newer Block DM-2M (11S861-01) provides slightly better performance by burning synthetic kerosene fuel in an RD-58S engine.  The Block DM-5, or 17S40, also uses the RD-58M engine, but it is designed to carry heavy payloads to low earth orbit.  It has a stronger, heavier payload adapter and it carries less fuel than Block DM-2. 

Block DM stage nomenclature got confusing when RSC Energia established a new identification system for commercial flights in 1996.  Since then, commercial Block DM-2M stages have usually been identified as Block DM3 (usually for ILS missions) stages.

Briz-M  

Krunichev's Briz-M fourth stage is derived from the Briz-K stage flown on Rokot. It provides improved payload performance compared to the Blok DM series. Much of the performance gain comes from the use of a jettisonable toroidial propellant tank. The "drop tank" surrounds a core section, effectively a Briz-K, composed of propellant tanks, an avionics bay, and a propulsion system. A single, gimbaled R2000 19.62 kN thrust main engine powers the stage. It is augmented by four 394 N "impulse adjustment thrusters" and twelve 13.3 N attitude control thrusters. The main engine can be restarted up to eight times. 

Breeze M uses a lower thrust engine than Block DM. As a result, it must perform at least two perigee burns, in place of a single Block DM perigee burn, to put payloads into GTO. Typically, the first burn raises apogee to 5,000-7,000 km. The second burn, one orbit and about 2.5 hours later, boosts apogee to GTO altitude (35,000 km). This second perigee burn is actually two burns conducted in succession, with the empty drop tank jettisonned in between.  The final burn, at apogee about 5.2 hours later, raises perigee and lowers orbital inclination. Proton/Briz-M missions can last 9-10 hours, compared to 5.5-6.5 hours for Proton-K/Blok DM.

Proton M/Briz M "Enhanced"

To handle increasingly heavier payloads, Krunichev introduced an "Enhanced" (Phase 2) Proton M/Briz M, which first flew on July 7, 2007 with the 5.893 tonne DirecTV-10 Boeing 702 series satellite. The improved rocket featured upgraded RD-276 first stage engines, weight reduction in the Proton stages, reconfigured Briz M avionics for more weight reduction, and improved Briz M specific impulse. The changes were made over a period of years in a series of "Phases". "Phase 3", which began flying as the standard ILS Proton in 2009, could boost 6.15 tonnes to a GTO that was 1,500 m/s short of GEO. "Phase 4" was expected to lift up to 6.35 tonnes to GTO beginning in 2015.

In 2011, a Phase 3 Proton M/Briz M boosted ViaSat 1, a 6.7 tonne satellite, into a targeted GTO that, at 2,363 x 35,786 km x 30.4 deg, was 1,700 m/s short of GEO.  This mission showed how Proton could lift heavier payloads into lower than standard-energy geosynchronous transfer orbits.

 

pses6s.jpg (21432 bytes)Launch Sites

Proton is Transported Horzontally by Rail to Launch Pad

Proton has flown exclusively from Baikonur.  It originally flew from one of two launch pads (Pad 23 and 24) at Area 81 on the western edge of the Cosmodrome.  During the late 1970s and early 1980s, two new pads (39 and 40) entered service at Area 200, several miles east of Area 81.  Pads 23 and 24 were taken out of service during the 1980s for refurbishment.  Site 200/40 was retired during the early 1990s.  After returning to service for several years, Site 81/23 was mothballed after 2005.  Sites 81/24 and 200/39, both modified to handle Proton M during the mid 2000s, were active as  of 2014. 

Like Soyuz, Proton and payload are integrated horizontally on a rail-transporter in a hangar.  For Proton the hangar is Building 92-1, which has a 120 by 50 meter main assembly hall that can handle up to four Protons simultaneously.  Proton first stages are assembled on a rotating fixture in the hall, where the six fuel tanks with main engines are added to the core oxidizer tank.   Launch vehicles are assembled horizontally and tested in the hall.

Upper stages and payloads are processed in nearby Building 92A-50, where satellites are enclosed in the fairing and mated to the stage.   This "Space Head Section" is brought into Building 92-1 by rail and mated with the Proton.  A few days before launch, the entire 61 meter long vehicle is lifted onto a rail-transporter.  Proton is rolled out horizontally to a fueling station for its Briz M upper stage if that stage is used, then it rolls to one of the austere looking launch pads where the rail-transporter erects the vehicle into a vertical position. A mobile service tower then partially encloses the vehicle until launch day. This flexible system has supported as many as 14 Proton launches in a calendar year.

93533s.jpg (15685 bytes)ILS

Spectacular 2012 Proton Night Launch Orbited Echostar 16

Proton began flying commercial satellite missions for International Launch Services (ILS) in 1995.  ILS was an international consortium originally owned by Lockheed Martin, Krunichev, and RSC Energia. Lockheed Martin sold its ILS share to Space Transport Inc in 2006, turning the company into a wholly Russian-owned enterprise.  ILS allowed Proton to steadily gain commercial satellite launch market share during the 2000s. 

Proton had flown 393 times by the end of 2013. 

 

Vehicle Configurations

  LEO
Payload
(metric tons)
200 km x
51.6 deg
GTO
Payload
1500 m/s
from GEO*
(metric
tons)
GEO
Payload
(metric
tons)
Earth
Escape
Payload
C3=0
(metric
tons)
Configuration LIftoff
Height
(meters)
Liftoff
Mass
(metric tons)
Proton K 19.76 t       3 Stage Proton-K 61 m 683 t
Proton K/DM-2M   4.9 t 2.1 t   3 Stage Proton-K
+ Blok DM-2M
61 m 700 t
Proton M 21.60 t       3 Stage Proton-M 56.2 m 683 t
Proton M/Briz-M   5.65 t 3.0 t 5.06 t 3 Stage Proton-M
+ Briz-M
56.2 m 700 t
Proton M/Briz-M Enhanced 23.00 t 6.15 t (Ph 3)
6.35 t (Ph 4)
3.25 t (Ph 3)
3.35 t (Ph 4)
5.65 t (Ph 4) 3 Stage Proton-M Enhanced
+ Briz-M Enhanced
56.2 m 705 t

*GEO: Geosynchronous Earth Orbit


Vehicle Components

  Proton-K
First Stage
Proton-K
2nd Stage
Proton-K
3rd Stage
Proton M
First Stage
Proton M
2nd Stage
Proton M
3rd Stage
Diameter (m) 7.4 m 4.1 m 4.1 m 7.4 m 4.1 m 4.1 m
Length (m) 20.2 m m m 20.2 m m m
Propellant Mass (tons) 419.41 t 156.113 t 46.562 t 419.41 t 156.113 t 46.562 t
Total Mass (tons) 450.41 t 167.863 t 50.747 t 450.01 t 167.513 t 50.262 t
Engine RD-253 RD-210 RD-210 RD-275 RD-210 RD-210
Engine Mfgr Glushko Kosberg Kosberg Glushko Kosberg Kosberg
Fuel UDMH UDMH UDMH UDMH UDMH UDMH
Oxidizer N2O4 N2O4 N2O4 N2O4 N2O4 N2O4
Thrust
(SL tons)
900 t     972 t    
Thrust
(Vac tons)
996 t 237 t 62 t 1,068 t 237 t 62 t
ISP (SL sec) 285 s     285 s    
ISP (Vac sec) 316 s 327 s 327 s 316 s 327 s 327 s
Burn Time (sec) 120 s 215 s 237 s 120 s 215 s 237 s
No. Engines 6 4 1 6 4 1

Vehicle Components, Cont.

  Proton M
"Enhanced"
First Stage
Proton M
"Enhanced"
2nd Stage
Proton M
"Enhanced"
3rd Stage
Blok DM-2M
4th Stage
Briz-M
4th Stage
Briz-M
"Enhanced"
4th Stage
Diameter (m) 7.4 m 4.1 m 4.1 m 3.7 m 4.0 m 4.0 m
Length (m) 20.2 m 17.1 m 4.11 m 6.28 m 2.61 m 2.61 m
Propellant Mass (tons) 428.3 t 157.3 t 46.562 t 15.05 t 19.8 t 19.8 t
Total Mass (tons) 458.9 t 168.3 t 50.062 t 17.49 t 22.3 t 22.17 t
Engine RD-276 RD-210 RD-213 11D58M S5.98M S5.98M
Engine Mfgr Glushko Kosberg Kosberg Energia Isayev Isayev
Fuel UDMH UDMH UDMH Kerosene UDMH UDMH
Oxidizer N2O4 N2O4 N2O4 LOX N2O4 N2O4
Thrust
(SL tons)
1,021 t          
Thrust
(Vac tons)
1,120 t 237 t 62.6 t 8.5 t 2.0 t 2.0 t
ISP (SL sec) 285 s          
ISP (Vac sec) 316 s 327 s 327 s 361 s 326 s 328 s
Burn Time (sec) 123 s 215 s 237 s 680 s 3200 s 3200 s
No. Engines 6 4 1 1 1 1




Proton Launch Log

Proton Failure Details
Proton Flight Summary by Year
DATE     VEHICLE           ID      PAYLOAD                  MASS(t) SITE*      ORBIT**
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
07/16/65 Proton            20701  Proton 1 (N-4 1)          12.20   TB 81/23   LEO 
11/02/65 Proton            20901  Proton 2 (N-4 2)          12.20   TB 81/23   LEO

03/24/66 Proton            21101  Proton   (N-4 3)          12.20   TB 81/23  [FTO]
07/06/66 Proton            21201  Proton 3 (N-4 4)          12.20   TB 81/23   LEO 

03/10/67 Proton-K/D        22701  Kosmos 146 (L-1 2P)        5.40   TB 81/23   EEO 
04/08/67 Proton-K/D        22801  Kosmos-154 (L-1 3P)        5.40   TB 81/23  [LEO]
09/27/67 Proton-K/D        22901  Zond (L-1 4L)              5.39   TB 81/23  [FTO]
11/22/67 Proton-K/D        23001  Zond (L-1 5L)              5.39   TB 81/24  [FTO]

03/02/68 Proton-K/D        23101  Zond-4 (L-1 6L)            5.14   TB 81/23   EEO
04/22/68 Proton-K/D        23201  Zond (L-1 7L)              5.375  TB 81/24  [FTO]
07/15/68 Proton-K/D        23301  Zond (L-1 8L)              5.375  TB 81/?   [PAD][1]
09/14/68 Proton-K/D        23401  Zond-5 (L-1 9L)            5.375  TB 81/23   TLI [2]
11/10/68 Proton-K/D        23501  Zond-6 (L-1 12L)           5.375  TB 81/23   TLI
11/16/68 Proton-K          23601  Proton-4 (N-6 1)          17.00   TB 81/24   LEO

01/20/69 Proton-K/D        23701  Zond (L-1 13L)             5.979  TB 81/23  [FTO]
02/19/69 Proton-K/D        23901  Luna (E-8 201)             5.60   TB 81/24  [FTO]
03/27/69 Proton-K/D        24001  Mars (2M 521)              4.85   TB 81/23  [FTO]
04/02/69 Proton-K/D        23301  Mars (2M 522)              4.85   TB 81/24  [FTO]
06/14/69 Proton-K/D        23801  Luna (E-8-5 402)           5.60   TB 81/24  [FTO]
07/13/69 Proton-K/D        24201  Luna-15 (E-8-5 401)        5.60   TB 81/24   TLI [3]
08/07/69 Proton-K/D        24301  Zond-7 (L-1 11)            5.979  TB 81/23   TLI
09/23/69 Proton-K/D        24401  Kosmos-300 (E-8-5 403)     5.60   TB 81/24  [LEO]
10/22/69 Proton-K/D        24101  Kosmos-305 (E-8-5 404)     5.60   TB 81/24  [LEO]
11/28/69 Proton-K/D        24501  Kosmos (L-1e 1)           10.38   TB 81/23  [FTO]

02/06/70 Proton-K/D        24701  Luna (E-8-5 405)           5.60   TB 81/23  [FTO]
08/18/70 Proton K          24601  82EV Suborbital Test              TB 81/23   SUB
09/12/70 Proton-K/D        24801  Luna-16 (E-8-5 406)        5.60   TB 81/23   TLI [4]
10/20/70 Proton-K/D        25001  Zond-8 (L-1 14)            5.375  TB 81/23   TLI
11/10/70 Proton-K/D        25101  Luna-17 (E-8 203)          5.60   TB 81/23   TLI [5]
12/02/70 Proton-K/D        25201  Kosmos-382 (L-1e 2K)      10.38   TB 81/23   MEO

04/19/71 Proton-K          25401  Salyut 1 DOS-1            18.425  TB 81/24   LEO [6]
05/10/71 Proton-K/D        25301  Kosmos-419 (3MS 170)       4.65   TB 81/23  [LEO]
05/19/71 Proton-K/D        25501  Mars-2 (4M 171)            4.65   TB 81/24   HCO [7]
05/28/71 Proton-K/D        24901  Mars-3 (4M 172)            4.65   TB 81/23   HCO [8]
09/02/71 Proton-K/D        25601  Luna-18 (E-8-5 407)        5.75   TB 81/24   TLI
09/28/71 Proton-K/D        25701  Luna-19 (E-8LS 202)        5.70   TB 81/24   TLI

02/14/72 Proton-K/D        25801  Luna-20 (E-8-5 408)        5.727  TB 81/24   TLI
07/29/72 Proton-K          26001  Salyut DOS 2              18.425  TB 81/23  [FTO]

01/08/73 Proton-K/D        25901  Luna-21 (E-8 204)          5.95   TB 81/23   TLI
04/03/73 Proton-K          28301  Salyut-2 (Almaz OPS 1)    18.50   TB 81/23   LEO
05/11/73 Proton-K          28401  Kosmos-557 (DOS 3)        19.40   TB 81/23   LEO
07/21/73 Proton-K/D        26101  Mars-4 (3MS 52S)           4.65   TB 81/23   HCO
07/25/73 Proton-K/D        26201  Mars-5 (3MS 53S)           4.65   TB 81/24   HCO
08/05/73 Proton-K/D        28101  Mars-6 (3MP 50P)           4.65   TB 81/23   HCO
08/09/73 Proton-K/D        28102  Mars-7 (3MP 51P)           4.65   TB 81/24   HCO

03/26/74 Proton-K/DM       28201  Kosmos-637 (Raduga GVM)    2.00   TB 81/23   GEO [9]
05/29/74 Proton-K/D        28202  Luna-22 (E-8LS 206)        5.70   TB 81/24   TLI
06/24/74 Proton-K          28302  Salyut-3 (Almaz 2)        18.90   TB 81/23   LEO
07/29/74 Proton-K/DM       28701  Molniya-1S 1               1.75   TB 81/24   GEO [10]
10/28/74 Proton-K/D        28501  Luna-23 (E-8-5M 410)       5.80   TB 81/24   TLI
12/26/74 Proton-K          28402  Salyut-4 (DOS 4)          18.50   TB 81/24   TLI

06/08/75 Proton-K/D        28601  Venera-9 (4V-1 660)        4.936  TB 81/24   HCO [11]
06/14/75 Proton-K/D        28502  Venera-10 (4V-1 661)       5.033  TB 81/24   HCO [12]
10/08/75 Proton-K/DM       28602  Kosmos-775 (Oko  )         2.40   TB 81/23   GEO
10/16/75 Proton-K/D        28702  Luna-24 (E-8-5M 412)       5.60   TB 81/23  [LEO]
12/22/75 Proton-K/DM       28801  Raduga 1 (Gran' 11L)       2.00   TB 81/24   GEO

06/22/76 Proton-K          29002  Salyut-5 (Almaz OPS 3)    19.00   TB 81/23   LEO
08/09/76 Proton-K/D-1      28802  Luna-24 (E-8-5M 413)       5.80   TB 81/23   TLI [13]
09/11/76 Proton-K/DM       28901  Raduga 2 (Gran' 12L)       2.00   TB 81/24   GEO
10/26/76 Proton-K/DM       29001  Ekran 11L                  1.97   TB 81/24   GEO
12/15/76 Proton-K          28902  Kosmos-881/2 (VA 9 P/L)    9.60   TB 81/24   LEO [14]

07/17/77 Proton-K          29302  Kosmos-929 (TKS 1)        17.50   TB LC81/24 LEO
07/23/77 Proton-K/DM       29101  Raduga 3 (Gran' 13L)       2.00   TB 200/40  GEO
08/04/77 Proton-K          29301  VA 9P-F2/9L-F2             9.60   TB 81/24  [FTO][15]
09/20/77 Proton-K/DM       29102  Ekran 12L                  1.97   TB 200/40  GEO
09/29/77 Proton-K          29501  Salyut-6 DOS 5            19.824  TB 81/24   LEO

03/30/78 Proton-K          29201  Kosmos-997/8 (VA 102P/L)   9.60   TB 81/24?  LEO
05/27/78 Proton-K/DM       29402  Ekran	13L                  1.97   TB 200/40 [FTO]
07/18/78 Proton-K/DM       29202  Raduga (Gran' 14L)         2.00   TB 200/40  GEO
08/17/78 Proton-K/DM       29702  Ekran 15L                  1.97   TB 200/40 [FTO]
09/09/78 Proton-K/D-1      29601  Venera-11                  4.94   TB 81/23   HCO [16]
09/14/78 Proton-K/D-1      29602  Venera-12                  4.94   TB 81/24   HCO [16]
10/17/78 Proton-K/DM       29801  Ekran 14L                  1.97   TB 200/40 [FTO]
12/19/78 Proton-K/DM       29502  Gorizont 11L               2.30   TB 200/40 [EEO]

02/21/79 Proton-K/DM       29401  Ekran 16L                  1.97   TB 200/40  GEO
04/25/79 Proton-K/DM       29802  Raduga (Gran' 15L)         2.00   TB 200/40  GEO
05/22/79 Proton-K          30002  Kosmos-1100/1(VA 102P/L)   9.60   TB 81/24   LEO [17]
07/05/79 Proton-K/DM       29901  Gorizont 12L               2.30   TB 200/40  GEO
10/03/79 Proton-K/DM       30202  Ekran 17L                  1.97   TB 200/40  GEO
12/28/79 Proton-K/DM       30301  Gorizont 13L               2.30   TB 200/40  GEO

02/20/80 Proton-K/DM       29701  Raduga (Gran' 16L)         2.00   TB 200/39  GEO
06/14/80 Proton-K/DM       30302  Gorizont 15L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
07/14/80 Proton-K/DM       30101  Ekran 19L                  1.97   TB 200/40  GEO
10/05/80 Proton-K/DM       30001  Raduga (Gran' 17L)         2.00   TB 200/39  GEO
12/26/80 Proton-K/DM       30401  Ekran 20L                  1.97   TB 200/40  GEO

03/18/81 Proton-K/DM       30601  Raduga (Gran' 18L)         2.00   TB 200/40  GEO
04/25/81 Proton-K          29902  Kosmos-1267 (TKS 2)       17.50   TB 200/39  LEO [18]
06/25/81 Proton-K/DM       30501  Ekran 21L                  1.97   TB 200/40  GEO
07/30/81 Proton-K/DM       30102  Raduga (Gran' 19L)         2.00   TB 200/39  GEO
10/09/81 Proton-K/DM       31001  Raduga (Gran' 20L)         2.00   TB 200/39  GEO
10/30/81 Proton-K/D-1      31101  Venera-13                  4.363  TB 200/40  HCO [16]
11/04/81 Proton-K/D-1      31102  Venera-14                  4.363  TB 200/39  HCO [16]

02/05/82 Proton-K/DM       30801  Ekran 22L                  1.97   TB 200/40  GEO
03/15/82 Proton-K/DM       30502  Gorizont 14L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
04/19/82 Proton-K          30602  Salyut-7 (DOS 6)          19.824  TB 200/40  LEO
05/17/82 Proton-K/DM       31002  Kosmos-1366 (Geizer 11L)   2.00   TB 200/39  GEO
07/22/82 Proton-K/DM       30702  Ekran 23L                  1.97   TB 200/40 [FTO]
09/16/82 Proton-K/DM       30901  Ekran 24L                  1.97   TB 200/40  GEO
10/12/82 Proton-K/DM-2     31501  Kosmos-1413 (Uragan 1)     4.245  TB 200/39  MEO [19]
10/20/82 Proton-K/DM       31201  Gorizont 16L               2.30   TB 200/40  GEO
11/26/82 Proton-K/DM       31301  Raduga (Gran' 21L)         2.00   TB 200/39  GEO
12/24/82 Proton-K/DM       31401  Raduga (Gran' 22L)         2.00   TB 200/39 [FTO]

03/02/83 Proton-K          30902  Kosmos-1443 (TKS 3)       17.51   TB 200/39  LEO [20]
03/12/83 Proton-K/DM       30402  Ekran 18L                  1.97   TB 200/40  GEO
03/23/83 Proton-K/D-1      30701  Astron 1A 602              3.25   TB 200/39  EEO
04/08/83 Proton-K/DM       31502  Raduga (Gran' 23L)         2.00   TB 200/40  GEO
06/02/83 Proton-K/D-1      32101  Venera-15                  4.00   TB 200/39  HCO [21]
06/07/83 Proton-K/D-1      32102  Venera-16                  4.00   TB 200/40  HCO [21]
06/30/83 Proton-K/DM       31402  Gorizont 17L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
08/10/83 Proton-K/DM-2     31701  Kosmos-1490 (Uragan 2/3)   4.245  TB 200/39  MEO
08/25/83 Proton-K/DM       31602  Raduga (Gran' 24L)         2.00   TB 200/40  GEO
09/29/83 Proton-K/DM       31801  Ekran 25L                  1.97   TB 200/40  GEO
11/30/83 Proton-K/DM       30802  Gorizont 18L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
12/29/83 Proton-K/DM-2     32002  Kosmos-1519 (Uragan 4/5)   4.245  TB 200/40  MEO

02/15/84 Proton-K/DM       31802  Raduga (Gran' 25L)         2.00   TB 200/39  GEO
03/02/84 Proton-K/DM       31601  Kosmos-1540 (Geizer 12L)   2.00   TB 200/40  GEO
03/16/84 Proton-K/DM       32201  Ekran	26L                  1.97   TB 200/39  GEO
03/29/84 Proton-K/DM       31902  Kosmos-1546 (Oko)          2.40   TB 200/40  GEO
04/22/84 Proton-K/DM       31202  Gorizont 19L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
05/19/84 Proton-K/DM-2     32302  Kosmos-1554 (Uragan 6/7)   4.245  TB 200/40  MEO
06/22/84 Proton-K/DM       31901  Raduga (Gran' 27L)         2.00   TB 200/39  GEO
08/01/84 Proton-K/DM       32401  Gorizont 20L               2.30   TB 200/40  GEO
08/24/84 Proton-K/DM       32402  Ekran	27L                  1.97   TB 200/39  GEO
09/04/84 Proton-K/DM-2     32001  Kosmos-1593 (Uragan 8/9)   4.245  TB 200/40  MEO
09/28/84 Proton-K/DM-2     32702  Kosmos-1603 (Tselina-2)    3.25   TB 200/39  LEO [22]
12/15/84 Proton-K/D-1      32901  Vega-1                     4.92   TB 200/39  HCO [23]
12/21/84 Proton-K/D-1      32502  Vega-2                     4.92   TB 200/40  HCO [23]

01/18/85 Proton-K/DM       32602  Gorizont 21L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
02/21/85 Proton-K/DM       32701  Kosmos-1629 (Oko)          2.40   TB 200/39  GEO
03/22/85 Proton-K/DM       32801  Ekran	28L                  1.97   TB 200/40  GEO
05/17/85 Proton-K/DM-2     33002  Kosmos-1650(Uragan 10/11)  4.245  TB 200/39  MEO
05/30/85 Proton-K/DM-2     31302  Kosmos-1656 (Tselina-2)    3.25   TB 200/40  LEO [22]
08/08/85 Proton-K/DM       31702  Raduga (Gran' 26L)         2.00   TB 200/39  GEO
09/27/85 Proton-K          33101  Kosmos-1686 (TKS-M 1)     20.00   TB 200/39  LEO [24]
10/25/85 Proton-K/DM-2     33202  Kosmos-1700 (Altair 11L)   2.60   TB 200/40  GEO
11/15/85 Proton-K/DM       32601  Raduga (Gran' 28L)         2.00   TB 200/39  GEO
12/24/85 Proton-K/DM-2     33402  Kosmos-1710(Uragan 12/13)  4.245  TB 200/39  MEO

01/17/86 Proton-K/DM       33102  Raduga (Gran' 29L)         2.00   TB 200/40  GEO
02/19/86 Proton-K          33701  Mir DOS 7                 20.40   TB 200/39  LEO [25]
04/04/86 Proton-K/DM       30201  Kosmos-1738 (Geizer 13L)   2.00   TB 200/40  GEO
05/24/86 Proton-K/DM       33301  Ekran	30L                  1.97   TB 200/39  GEO
06/10/86 Proton-K/DM       32202  Gorizont 24L               2.30   TB 200/40  GEO
09/16/86 Proton-K/DM-2     33601  Kosmos-1778(Uragan 14-16)  4.245  TB 200/40  MEO
10/25/86 Proton-K/DM       33502  Raduga (Gran' 30L)         2.00   TB 200/40  GEO
11/18/86 Proton-K/DM       33401  Gorizont 22L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
11/29/86 Proton-K          33801  Almaz-T 1                 18.55   TB 200/40 [FTO]

01/30/87 Proton-K/DM-2     34101  Kosmos-1817 (Ekran-M 11L)  2.00   TB 200/40 [LEO]
03/19/87 Proton-K/DM       32301  Raduga (Gran' 31L)         2.00   TB 200/40  GEO
03/31/87 Proton-K          33602  Kvant/TKM-E               22.797  TB 200/39  LEO [25]
04/24/87 Proton-K/DM-2     33501  Kosmos-1838(Uragan 17-19)  4.245  TB 200/40 [EEO]
05/11/87 Proton-K/DM       33802  Gorizont 23L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
07/25/87 Proton-K          34701  Kosmos-1870 (Almaz-T 2)   18.55   TB 200/40  LEO
09/03/87 Proton-K/DM       33702  Ekran	29L                  1.97   TB 200/39  GEO
09/16/87 Proton-K/DM-2     33902  Kosmos-1883(Uragan 20-22)  4.245  TB 200/40  MEO
10/01/87 Proton-K/DM-2     32802  Kosmos-1888 (Geizer 15L)   2.40   TB 200/39  GEO
10/28/87 Proton-K/DM-2     32501  Kosmos-1894 (Oko)          2.40   TB 200/40  GEO
11/26/87 Proton-K/DM-2     33001  Kosmos-1897 (Altair 12L)   2.60   TB 200/39  GEO
12/10/87 Proton-K/DM-2     34301  Raduga (Gran' 32L)         2.00   TB 200/40  GEO
12/27/87 Proton-K/DM-2     34501  Ekran-M 13L                2.00   TB 200/39  GEO

01/18/88 Proton-K/DM-2     34102  Gorizont 25L               2.30   TB 200/40 [FTO]
02/17/88 Proton-K/DM-2     34602  Kosmos-1919(Uragan 23-25)  4.245  TB 200/39 [LEO]
03/31/88 Proton-K/DM       34302  Gorizont 26L               2.30   TB 200/40  GEO
04/26/88 Proton-K/DM-2     33201  Kosmos-1940 (34Kh6 1)      2.40   TB 200/39  GEO
05/06/88 Proton-K/DM       34901  Ekran 31L                  1.97   TB 200/39  GEO
05/21/88 Proton-K/DM-2     34801  Kosmos-1946(Uragan 26-28)  4.245  TB 200/39  MEO
07/07/88 Proton-K/D-2      35602  Fobos-1                    6.22   TB 200/39  EEO [26]
07/12/88 Proton-K/D-2      35601  Fobos-2                    6.22   TB 200/40  EEO [26]
08/01/88 Proton-K/DM-2     35101  Kosmos-1961 (Geizer 16L)   2.40   TB 200/39  GEO
08/18/88 Proton-K/DM-2     33302  Gorizont 28L               2.30   TB 200/40  GEO
09/16/88 Proton-K/DM-2     34902  Kosmos-1970(Uragan 29-31)  4.245  TB 200/39  MEO
10/20/88 Proton-K/DM-2     33901  Raduga (Gran' 34L)         2.00   TB 200/39  GEO
12/10/88 Proton-K/DM-2     32902  Ekran-M 12L                2.00   TB 200/40  GEO

01/10/89 Proton-K/DM-2     35002  Kosmos-1987(Uragan 32-33)  4.245  TB 200/39  MEO
01/26/89 Proton-K/DM-2     35102  Gorizont 29L               2.30   TB 200/40  GEO
04/14/89 Proton-K/DM-2     35902  Raduga (Gran' 33L)         2.00   TB 200/39  GEO
05/31/89 Proton-K/DM-2     35202  Kosmos-2022(Uragan 34-35)  4.245  TB 200/40  MEO
06/21/89 Proton-K/DM-2     35502  Raduga-1 1 (Globus 11)     2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
07/05/89 Proton-K/DM-2     34002  Gorizont 27L               2.30   TB 200/40  GEO
09/28/89 Proton-K/DM-2     34601  Gorizont 31L               2.30   TB 200/40  GEO
11/26/89 Proton-K          35401  Kvant-2                   19.565  TB 200/39  LEO [25]
12/01/89 Proton-K/D-1      35201  Granat                     4.40   TB 200/40  EEO
12/15/89 Proton-K/DM-2     34401  Raduga (Gran' 36L)         2.00   TB 81/23   GEO
12/27/89 Proton-K/DM-2     34702  Kosmos-2054 (Altair 14L)   2.60   TB 200/39  GEO

02/15/90 Proton-K/DM-2     36302  Raduga (Gran' 35L)         2.00   TB 81/23   GEO
05/19/90 Proton-K/DM-2     35001  Kosmos-2079(Uragan 36-38)  4.245  TB 200/40  MEO
05/31/90 Proton-K          36001  Kristall                  19.50   TB 200/39  LEO [25]
06/20/90 Proton-K/DM       34202  Gorizont 30L               2.30   TB 200/40  GEO
07/18/90 Proton-K/DM-2     34001  Kosmos-2085 (Geizer 17L)   2.40   TB 200/39  GEO
08/09/90 Proton-K/DM-2     34502  Ekran-M 14L                2.00   TB 200/39 [FTO]
11/03/90 Proton-K/DM-2     37001  Gorizont 32L               2.30   TB 81/23   GEO
11/23/90 Proton-K/DM-2     34802  Gorizont 33L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
12/08/90 Proton-K/DM-2     36602  Kosmos-2109(Uragan 39-41)  4.245  TB 200/40  MEO
12/20/90 Proton-K/DM-2     36101  Raduga (Gran' 37L)         2.00   TB 81/23   GEO
12/27/90 Proton-K/DM-2     34201  Raduga-1 2 (Globus 12)     2.30   TB 200/39  GEO

02/14/91 Proton-K/DM-2     34402  Kosmos-2133 (US-KMO 1)     2.60   TB 200/39  GEO
02/28/91 Proton-K/DM-2     36002  Raduga (Gran' 38L)         2.00   TB 81/23   GEO
03/31/91 Proton-K          36501  Almaz 1 (Almaz-T 3)       18.55   TB 200/40  LEO
04/04/91 Proton-K/DM-2     35402  Kosmos-2139(Uragan 42-44)  4.245  TB 200/39  MEO
07/01/91 Proton-K/DM-2     37301  Gorizont 34L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
09/13/91 Proton-K/DM-2     35301  Kosmos-2155 (Oko)          2.40   TB 81/23   GEO
10/23/91 Proton-K/DM-2     36202  Gorizont 35L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
11/22/91 Proton-K/DM-2     35302  Kosmos-2172 (Geizer 18L)   2.40   TB 81/23   GEO
12/19/91 Proton-K/DM-2     35501  Raduga (Gran' 39L)         2.00   TB 81/23   GEO

01/29/92 Proton-K/DM-2     37202  Kosmos-2177(Uragan 45-47)  4.245  TB 81/23   MEO
04/02/92 Proton-K/DM-2     36901  Gorizont 36L               2.30   TB 81/23   GEO
07/14/92 Proton-K/DM-2     37102  Gorizont 37L               2.30   TB 81/23   GEO
07/30/92 Proton-K/DM-2     37601  Kosmos-2204(Uragan 48-50)  4.245  TB 81/23   MEO
09/10/92 Proton-K/DM-2     36301  Kosmos-2209 (Oko)          2.40   TB 81/23   GEO
10/30/92 Proton-K/DM-2     37201  Ekran-M 15L                2.00   TB 81/23   GEO
11/27/92 Proton-K/DM-2     36401  Gorizont 38L               2.30   TB 81/23   GEO
12/17/92 Proton-K/DM-2     35702  Kosmos-2224 (US-KMO 2)     2.60   TB 200/39  GEO

02/17/93 Proton-K/DM-2     36201  Kosmos-2234(Uragan 51-53)  4.245  TB 81/23   MEO
03/25/93 Proton-K/DM-2     35801  Raduga (Gran' 42L)         2.00   TB 81/23   GEO
05/27/93 Proton-K/DM-2     36402  Gorizont 39L               2.30   TB 81/23  [FTO]
09/30/93 Proton-K/DM-2     35901  Raduga (Gran' 41L)         2.00   TB 81/23   GEO
10/28/93 Proton-K/DM-2     36801  Gorizont 40L               2.30   TB 81/23   GEO
11/18/93 Proton-K/DM-2     36701  Gorizont 41L               2.30   TB 81/23   GEO

01/20/94 Proton-K/DM-2M    35802  Gals 1 (11L)               2.50   TB 81/23   GEO
02/05/94 Proton-K/DM-2     37502  Raduga-1 3 (Globus 13L)    2.30   TB 81/23   GEO
02/18/94 Proton-K/DM-2     37602  Raduga (Gran' 40L)         2.00   TB 81/23   GEO
04/11/94 Proton-K/DM-2     37701  Kosmos-2275(Uragan 54-56)  4.245  TB 81/23   MEO
05/20/94 Proton-K/DM-2     35701  Gorizont 42L               2.30   TB 81/23   GEO
07/06/94 Proton-K/DM-2     36502  Kosmos-2282 (US-KMO 3)     2.60   TB 81/23   GEO
08/11/94 Proton-K/DM-2     36702  Kosmos-2287(Uragan 57-59)  4.245  TB 81/23   MEO
09/21/94 Proton-K/DM-2     38102  Kosmos-2291 (Geizer 19L)   2.40   TB 200/39  GEO
10/13/94 Proton-K/DM-2M    37702  Ekspress 1 (Express 11L)   2.50   TB 200/39  GEO
10/31/94 Proton-K/DM-2     36102  Elektro 1                  2.40   TB 81/23   GEO
11/20/94 Proton-K/DM-2     37101  Kosmos-2294(Uragan 60-62)  4.245  TB 200/39  MEO
12/16/94 Proton-K/DM-2     37302  Luch	(Altair 13L)         2.60   TB 81/23   GEO
12/28/94 Proton-K/DM-2     36601  Raduga (Gran'43L)          2.00   TB 81/23   GEO

03/07/95 Proton-K/DM-2     37002  Kosmos-2307(Uragan 63-65)  4.245  TB 200/39  MEO
05/20/95 Proton-K          37802  Spektr                    19.64   TB 81/23   LEO [25]
07/24/95 Proton-K/DM-2     37401  Kosmos-2316(Uragan 66-68)  4.245  TB 200/39  MEO
08/30/95 Proton-K/DM-2     36902  Kosmos-2319 (Geizer 20L)   2.40   TB 200/39  GEO
10/11/95 Proton-K/DM-2     38601  Luch-2 1 (Gelios 11L)      2.60   TB 81/23   GEO
11/17/95 Proton-K/DM-2     38401  Gals 2 (12L)               2.50   TB 200/39  GEO
12/14/95 Proton-K/DM-2     37801  Kosmos-2323(Uragan 69-71)  4.245  TB 200/39  MEO

01/25/96 Proton-K/DM-2     37402  Gorizont 43L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
02/19/96 Proton-K/DM-2     38302  Raduga (Gran' 44L)         2.00   TB 200/39 [EEO]
04/08/96 Proton-K/DM-2M    39001  Astra 1F                   3.01   TB 81/23   GTO+[27]
04/23/96 Proton-K          38501  Priroda                   19.00   TB 81/23   LEO [25]
05/25/96 Proton-K/DM-2     37901  Gorizont 44L               2.30   TB 200/39  GEO
09/06/96 Proton-K/DM-2     37501  INMARSAT III F-2           1.144  TB 81/23   GEO
09/26/96 Proton-K/DM-2M    37902  Ekspress-6 (Ekspress 12L)  2.50   TB 200/39  GEO
11/16/96 Proton-K/D-2      39202  Mars-8 (Mars-96)           6.18   TB 200/39 [LEO]

05/24/97 Proton-K/DM-2M    38002  Galaxy 25 Telstar 5        3.60   TB 81/23   GTO+
06/06/97 Proton-K/17S40    38001  Kosmos-2344 (Araks-N 1)    7.50   TB 200/39  MEO
06/18/97 Proton-K/17S40    39002  Iridium 9-14,16            4.823  TB 81/23   LEO
08/14/97 Proton-K/DM-2     38101  Kosmos-2345 (Oko)          2.40   TB 200/39  GEO
08/28/97 Proton-K/DM-2M    38702  Intelsat IS-5 PAS 5        3.60   TB 81/23   GTO+
09/14/97 Proton-K/17S40    39101  Iridium 27-33              4.823  TB 81/23   LEO
11/12/97 Proton-K/DM-2M    38201  Kupon K95K                 2.50   TB 200/39  GEO
12/02/97 Proton-K/DM-2M    38202  Astra 1G                   3.379  TB 81/23   GTO+
12/24/97 Proton-K/DM-2M    39401  Asiasat 3                  3.40   TB 81/23  [EEO][28]

04/07/98 Proton-K/DM2      39102  Iridium 62-68              4.823  TB 81/23   LEO
04/29/98 Proton-K/DM-2     38402  Kosmos 2350 (US-KMO 4)     2.60   TB 200/39  GEO
05/07/98 Proton-K/DM3      39302  Echostar 4                 3.478  TB 81/23   GTO+
08/30/98 Proton-K/DM3      38301  Astra 2A                   3.626  TB 81/23   GTO+   
11/04/98 Proton-K/DM3      39502  PanAmSat 8                 3.80   TB 81/23   GTO+ 
11/20/98 Proton-K          39501  Zarya (ISS 1A/R)          19.323  TB 81/23   LEO/ISS[29]
12/30/98 Proton-K/DM-2     38502  Kosmos 2362(Uragan 72-74)  4.245  TB 200/39  MEO  

02/15/99 Proton-K/DM-2M    39601  Telstar 6                  3.763  TB 81/23   GTO+
02/28/99 Proton-K/DM-2     38701  Raduga-1 4 (Globus 15L)    2.30   TB 81/23   GEO  
03/21/99 Proton-K/DM-2M    38801  AsiaSat 3S                 3.465  TB 81/23   GTO+ 
05/20/99 Proton-K/DM-2M    39602  Nimiq 1                    3.60   TB 81/23   GTO+ 
06/18/99 Proton-K/DM-2M    39702  Astra 1H                   3.70   TB 81/23   GTO+
07/05/99 Proton-K/Briz M   38901  Raduga (Gran' 45L)         2.00   TB 81/24  [FTO] 
09/06/99 Proton-K/DM-2M    38802  Yamal 101/Yamal 102        2.72   TB 81/23   GEO  
09/26/99 Proton-K/DM-2M    39802  LMI 1                      3.74   TB 81/23   GTO+ 
10/27/99 Proton-K/DM-2     38602  Express A1                 2.50   TB 200/39 [FTO] 

02/12/00 Proton-K/DM3      39902  Garuda-1                   4.50   TB 81/23   GTO+
03/12/00 Proton-K/DM-2M    39901  Express A2                 2.50   TB 200/39  GEO
04/17/00 Proton-K/DM-2M    39701  Sesat                      2.50   TB 200/39  GEO
06/06/00 Proton-K/BrizM    39201  Gorizont 45L               2.30   TB 81/24   GEO
06/24/00 Proton-K/DM-2M    39402  Express 3A                 2.50   TB 200/39  GEO
06/30/00 Proton-K/DM3      40001  Sirius FM1                 3.80   TB 81/24   EEO
07/04/00 Proton-K/DM-2     38902  Kosmos-2371 (Geizer 22L)   2.40   TB 200/39  GEO
07/12/00 Proton-K          39801  ISS-1R/Zvezda (DOS 8)     20.295  TB 81/23   LEO/ISS
08/28/00 Proton-K/DM-2     40102  Raduga-1 5 (Globus 16L)    2.30   TB 81/24   GEO
09/05/00 Proton-K/DM3      40101  Sirius FM2                 3.80   TB 81/23   EEO
10/01/00 Proton-K/DM3      40101  GE-1A                      3.552  TB 81/23   GTO+
10/13/00 Proton-K/DM-2     39301  Kosmos 2374(Uragan 75-77)  4.245  TB 200/39  MEO
10/21/00 Proton-K/DM3      40201  GE-6                       3.80   TB 81/23   GTO+
11/30/00 Proton-K/DM3      40202  Sirius FM                  3.80   TB 81/23   HTO

04/07/01 Proton M/Briz M   53501  Ekran-M 18L                2.00   TB 81/24   GEO
05/15/01 Proton-K/DM3      40301  PAS-10                     3.739  TB 81/23   GTO+
06/16/01 Proton-K/DM3      40302  Astra-2C                   3.643  TB 81/23   GTO+
08/24/01 Proton-K/DM-2M    40401  Kosmos 2379 (US-KMO 5)     2.60   TB 81/24   GEO
10/06/01 Proton-K/DM-2     40501  Raduga-1 6 (Globus 14L)    2.30   TB 81/24   GEO
12/01/01 Proton-K/DM2      40502  Uragan 78-79, M1           4.245  TB 81/24   MEO

03/30/02 Proton-K/DM3      40601  Intelsat 903               4.725  TB 81/23   GTO+
05/07/02 Proton-K/DM3      40402  DirecTV-5                  3.64   TB 81/23   GTO+
06/10/02 Proton-K/DM-2M    40701  Express A1R                2.586  TB 200/39  GTO+
07/25/02 Proton-K/DM5      40702  Kosmos 2392 (Araks-N 2)    7.50   TB 81/24   MEO
08/22/02 Proton-K/DM3      40602  Echostar 8                 4.66   TB 81/23   GTO+
10/17/02 Proton-K/DM2      40901  INTEGRAL (ESA)             4.10   TB 81/23   EEO
11/25/02 Proton-K/DM3      40802  Astra 1K                   5.25   TB 81/23  [LEO]
12/25/02 Proton-K/DM-2     40902  Kosmos 2394(Uragan 80-82)  4.245  TB 81/23   MEO
12/29/02 Proton-M/Briz M   53502  Nimiq-2                    3.60   TB 81/24   GTO+

04/24/03 Proton K/DM-2     41002  Kosmos 2397 (US-KMO 6)     2.60   TB 81/24   GEO
06/06/03 Proton-K/Briz M   41001  AMC-9                      4.10   TB 200/39  GTO+
11/24/03 Proton K/DM-2M    40702  Yamal 201/202              2.68   TB 81/23   GEO
12/10/03 Proton K/Briz M   41003  Uragan 83-84, M2           4.245  TB 81/24   MEO
12/28/03 Proton-K/DM-2M    41004  Express AM-22              2.60   TB 200/39  GEO

03/15/04 Proton M/Briz M   53503  W3A                        4.25   TB 81/24   GTO+
03/27/04 Proton K/DM-2     41005  Raduga-1 7 (Globus 17L)    2.30   TB 81/23   GEO
04/26/04 Proton K/DM-2M    41006  Ekspress AM-11             2.6    TB 200/39  GEO
06/16/04 Proton M/Briz M   53506  Intelsat 10-02             5.6    TB 200/39  GTO+
08/04/04 Proton M/Briz M   53507  Amazonas                   4.6    TB 200/39  GTO+
10/14/04 Proton M/Briz M   53508  AMC-15                     4.0    TB 200/39  GTO+
10/29/04 Proton K/DM-2M    41008  Exspress AM-1              2.5    TB 200/39  GEO
12/26/04 Proton K/DM-2     41009  Uragan 85-86, M3           4.245  TB 200/39  MEO

02/03/05 Proton M/Briz M   53509  AMC-12                     5.0    TB 81/24   GTO
03/29/05 Proton K/DM-2M    41010  Express AM-2               2.6    TB 200/39  GEO
05/22/05 Proton M/Briz M   53510  Direct-TV8                 3.7    TB 200/39  GTO+
06/24/05 Proton K/DM-2     41007  Express AM-3               2.6    TB 200/39  GEO
09/08/05 Proton M/Briz M   53512  Anik F1R                   4.0    TB 200/39  GTO+
12/25/05 Proton K/DM-2M    41012  Uragan 87, M4, M5          4.35   TB 81/23   MEO
12/29/05 Proton M/Briz M   53513  AMC-23                     5.0    TB 200/39  GTO+

02/28/06 Proton M/Briz M   53511  Arabsat 4A                 3.3    TB 200/39 [EEO]
06/17/06 Proton K/DM-2M    41012  KazSat                     1.38   TB 200/39  GEO
08/04/06 Proton M/Briz M   53514  HotBird 8                  4.88   TB 200/39  GTO+
11/08/06 Proton M/Briz M   53515  BADR 4 (Arabsat 4B)        3.28   TB 200/39  GTO+
12/11/06 Proton M/Briz M   53521  Measat 3                   4.77   TB 200/39  GTO
12/25/06 Proton K/DM-2     41015  Uragan M6-M8               4.35   TB 81/24   MEO

04/09/07 Proton M/Briz M   53516  Anik F3                    4.64   TB 200/39  GTO+
07/07/07 Proton M/Briz M   53520  DirecTV 10                 5.89   TB 200/39  GTO
09/05/07 Proton M/Briz M   53522  JCSAT 11                   4.0    TB 200/39 [FTO]
10/26/07 Proton K/DM-2     41017  Uragan M9-M11              4.35   TB 81/24   MEO
11/17/07 Proton M/Briz M   53523  Sirius 4                   4.4    TB 200/39  GTO
12/09/07 Proton M/Briz M   53526  Raduga-1M 1                2.30   TB 81/24   GEO
12/25/07 Proton M/DM-2     53528  Uragan M12-M14             4.35   TB 81/24   MEO

01/28/08 Proton M/Briz M   53527  Express AM33               2.60   TB 200/39  GEO
02/11/08 Proton M/Briz M   53524  Thor 5                     1.94   TB 200/39  GEO
03/14/08 Proton M/Briz M   53525  AMC 14                     4.14   TB 200/39 [LEO]
06/26/08 Proton-K/DM-2     41014  Kosmos 2440 (US-KMO 7)     2.60   TB 81/24   GEO
08/18/08 Proton M/Briz M   93502  Inmarsat 4-F3              5.96   TB 200/39  GTO
09/19/08 Proton M/Briz M   53529  Nimiq 4                    4.85   TB 200/39  GTO+
09/25/08 Proton M/DM-2     53531  Uragan M15-M17             4.35   TB 81/24   MEO
11/05/08 Proton M/Briz M   53533  Astra 1M                   5.32   TB 200/39  GTO
12/10/08 Proton M/Briz M   93503  Ceil 2                     5.56   TB 200/39  GTO
12/25/08 Proton M/DM-2     53534  Uragan M18-M20             4.35   TB 81/24   MEO

02/11/09 Proton M/Briz M   93501  Express AM44/MD1           3.672  TB 200/39  GEO
02/28/09 Proton K/DM-2     41016  Raduga-1 8 (Globus 18L)    2.30   TB 81/24   GEO
04/03/09 Proton M/Briz M   93504  Eutelsat W2A               5.90   TB 200/39  GTO
05/16/09 Proton M/Briz M   93505  ProtoStar 2                4.00   TB 200/39  GTO+
06/30/09 Proton M/Briz M   93506  Sirius FM5                 5.82   TB 200/39  GTO+
08/11/09 Proton M/Briz M   93507  Asiasat 5                  3.76   TB 200/39  GTO+
09/17/09 Proton M/Briz M   93508  Nimiq 5                    4.745  TB 200/39  GTO+
11/24/09 Proton M/Briz M   93509  Eutelsat W7                5.627  TB 200/39  GTO+
12/14/09 Proton M/DM-2     53538  Uragan M21-M23             4.35   TB 81/24   MEO
12/28/09 Proton M/Briz M   93510  DirecTV 12                 5.90   TB 200/39  GTO+

01/28/10 Proton M/Briz M   53535  Raduga-1M 2                2.30   TB 81/24   GEO
02/12/10 Proton M/Briz M   53532  Intelsat 16                2.06   TB 200/39  GEO
03/01/10 Proton M/DM-2     53540  Uragan M24-M26             4.35   TB 81/24   MEO
03/20/10 Proton M/Briz M   93514  Echostar 14                6.38   TB 200/39  GTO
04/24/10 Proton M/Briz M   93511  SES 1                      2.56   TB 200/39  GEO
06/03/10 Proton M/Briz M   93512  Badr 5                     5.42   TB 200/39  GTO+
07/10/10 Proton M/Briz M   93515  Echostar 15                5.52   TB 200/39  GTO+
09/02/10 Proton M/DM-2     53530  Uragan M27-M29             4.35   TB 81/24   MEO
10/14/10 Proton M/Briz M   93516  Sirius XM-5                5.98   TB 81/24   GTO+
11/14/10 Proton M/Briz M   93513  Skyterra 1                 5.36   TB 200/39  GTO+
12/05/10 Proton M/DM-03    53537  Uragan M30-M32             4.35   TB 81/24  [FTO]
12/26/10 Proton M/Briz M   93517  KA-SAT                     6.15   TB 200/39  GTO+

05/20/11 Proton M/Briz M   93519  Telstar 14R                5.0    TB 200/39  GTO+
07/15/11 Proton M/Briz M   93518  SES-3/Kazsat 2             4.382  TB 200/39  GTO/GEO[30]
08/17/11 Proton M/Briz M   93521  Express AM4                5.775  TB 200/39 [EEO]
09/20/11 Proton M/Briz M   53542  Kosmos 2473 (Garpun 1)            TB 81/24   GTO
09/29/11 Proton M/Briz M   93522  QuetzSat 1                 5.514  TB 200/39  GTO
10/19/11 Proton M/Briz M   93520  ViaSat 1                   6.74   TB 200/39  GTO
11/04/11 Proton M/Briz M   53539  Uragan M34-M36             4.35   TB 81/24   MEO
11/25/11 Proton M/Briz M   93525  AsiaSat 7                  3.813  TB 200/39  GTO+
12/11/11 Proton M/Briz M   93523  Luch 5A/Amos 5             2.73   TB 81/24   GTO+

02/14/12 Proton M/Briz M   93524  SES 4                      6.18   TB 200/39  GTO
03/25/12 Proton M/Briz M   93528  Intelsat 22                6.199  TB 200/39  GTO+
03/30/12 Proton K/DM-2     41018  Kosmos 2479 (US-KMO 8)     2.60   TB 81/24   GEO
04/23/12 Proton M/Briz M   93527  Yahsat 1B                  6.05   TB 200/39  GTO+
05/17/12 Proton M/Briz M   93529  Nimiq 6                    4.50   TB 81/24   GEO
07/09/12 Proton M/Briz M   93530  SES 5                      6.01   TB 81/24   GTO
08/06/12 Proton M/Briz M   93531  Telkom 3/Express MD2       2.74   TB 81/24  [EEO]
10/14/12 Proton M/Briz M   93526  Intelsat 23                2.70   TB 81/24   GEO
11/02/12 Proton M/Briz M   93532  Yamal 300K/Luch 5B         3.22   TB 81/24   GEO
11/20/12 Proton M/Briz M   93533  Echostar 16                6.65   TB 200/39  GTO
12/08/12 Proton M/Briz M   93534  Yamal 402                  4.46   TB 200/39 [GTO]

03/26/13 Proton M/Briz M   93536  Satmex 8                   5.50   TB 200/39  GTO
04/15/13 Proton M/Briz M   93537  Anik G1                    4.90   TB 200/39  GTO
05/14/13 Proton M/Briz M   93538  Eutelsat 3D                5.50   TB 200/39  GTO
06/03/13 Proton M/Briz M   93540  SES 6                      6.10   TB 200/39  GTO+
07/02/13 Proton M/DM-03    53543  Uragan M39-M41             4.35   TB 81/24  [FTO]
09/29/13 Proton M/Briz M   93539  Astra 2E                   6.02   TB 200/39  GTO
10/25/13 Proton M/Briz M   93535  Sirius FM 6                6.00   TB 200/39  GTO
11/11/13 Proton M/Briz M   53541  Raduga-1M 3                2.30   TB 81/24   GTO+
12/08/13 Proton M/Briz M   93544  Inmarsat 5-F1              6.10   TB 200/39  GTO+
12/26/13 Proton M/Briz M   93541  Express AM5                3.20   TB 81/24   GEO

02/14/14 Proton M/Briz M   93543  Turksat 4A                 4.85   TB 81/24   GTO+
03/15/14 Proton M/Briz M   93542  Express AT1/AT2            2.999  TB 81/24   GEO 
04/28/14 Proton M/Briz M   93546  Luch 5v/Kazsat 3          ~2.85   TB 81/24   GEO
05/15/14 Proton M/Briz M   93545  Ekspress AM4R              5.775  TB 200/39 [FTO][31]
09/27/14 Proton M/Briz M   93547  Olymp-K/Luch              ~3      TB 81/24   GEO
10/21/14 Proton M/Briz M   93548  Express AM6                3.358  TB 81/24  [GEO-][32]
12/15/14 Proton M/Briz M   93550  Yamal 401                  2.976  TB 81/24   GEO [33]
12/27/14 Proton M/Briz M   93549  Astra 2G                   6.02   TB 200/39  GTO

02/01/15 Proton M/Briz M   93551  Inmarsat 5-F2              6.07   TB 200/39  GTO+
03/18/15 Proton M/Briz M   93552  Express AM7                5.712  TB 200/39  GTO+
05/16/15 Proton M/Briz M   93554  Mexsat 1                   5.235  TB 200/39 [FTO][34]
08/28/15 Proton M/Briz M   93555  Inmarsat 5-F3              6.07   TB 200/39  GTO+
09/14/15 Proton M/DM-03    93553  Express AM8                2.1    TB 81/24   GEO 
10/16/15 Proton M/Briz M   93556  Turksat 4B                 4.924  TB 200/39  GTO+
12/13/15 Proton M/Briz M   53544  Garpun 12L                ~3      TB 81/24   GEO
12/24/15 Proton M/Briz M   p409   Ekspress AMU 1             5.7    TB 200/39  GTO+
  
01/29/16 Proton M/Briz M   p410   Eutelsat 9B                5.175  TB 200/39  GTO 
03/14/16 Proton M/Briz M   p411   ExoMars 2016               4.332  TB 200/39  HCO [35]
06/09/16 Proton M/Briz M   p412   Intelsat 31/DLA-2          6.32   TB 81/24   GTO [36]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTES

[1] On-pad explosion of Blok D stage at Baikonur Area 81 on 7/15/1968.  The 
      accident killed three workers but did not damage the three-stage Proton-K 
      launcher beneath.  Proton-K flew one year later.

[2] Zond 5 was first circumlunar test of the Zond crew-capable spacecraft.  It was 
      the first spacecraft to circle the Moon and return to Earth.  Turtles and 
      other biological specimens carried became the first lifeforms to travel 
      around the moon and return safely to Earth.

[3] Luna 15 crashed during lunar landing attempt.

[4] Luna 16 performed first successful robotic lunar sample return.

[5] Lunakhood 1 first robotic rover on another celestial body.

[6] Salyut 1 was first human space station.

[7] Mars 2 was first man made object on Mars (crash landed).

[8] Mars 3 performed first soft landing on Mars.

[9] First USSR Geosynchronous Orbit (Raduga mass simulator).

[10] First USSR Geosynchronous satelite.

[11] First to orbit and land on Venus.  First image from surface of another planet.

[12] Second to orbit and land on Venus.

[13] Last lunar landing until 2013.  Third robotic lunar sample return.

[14] First flight of VA crew-capable spacecraft.  Two VA (009P and 009L) flown 
     and reentered.

[15] First stage failed.  Escape system saved VA 009L, flying its second flight.

[16] Landed on Venus.

[17] VA spacecraft 102P and 102L second flights. Both recovered successfully.  
      Mission used Proton K that had suffered an aborted launch attempt with 
      VA 103 and VA 008 on 04/20/79.  VA 103 was pulled off the Proton during 
      that abort by its escape system, but the parachute failed and the capsule 
      was destroyed.

[18] TKS-VA spacecraft.  TKS docked with Salyut 6 after VA separated and reentered.  

[19] Uragan 1 navsat plus two Uragan mass simulators (Kosmos 1413-1415).  Later 
     launches had 2-3 Uragan satellites with one or no mass simulators.

[20] Docked with Salyut 7. VA separated and reentered after docking, now in NASM.

[21] Orbited Venus.  Radar mappers.

[22] 850 km LEO.  Blok DM-2 changed plane from 51 deg to 71-77 deg.  Proton used 
      to test Tselina-2 ELNIT due to delays in Zenit-2 launch vehicle development.

[23] Venus flyby stages dropped off landers and balloon instruments, then flew by 
     Comet Halley. 

[24] Docked with Salyut 7.

[25] Mir station modules.

[26] Fobos propulsion unit (ADU) boosted 2.6 tonne spacecraft to HCO and into 
     orbit of Mars. Phobos 1 failed en route to Mars.  Phobos 2 enter Mars orbit 
     and imaged Phobos, Mars moon, but contact was lost before Phobos lander 
     could deploy.

[27] First ILS commercial Proton launch. 12,100 x 36,000 km insertion orbit. 

[28] Fourth stage failed, leaving Asiasat 3 short of GTO+.  Hughes acquired lost 
     satellite to GEO via. two lunar gravity assists.

[29] First ISS launch

[30] SES 3(3.112t) to GTO, Kazsat 2(1.27t) to GEO.  1st dual ILS launch.

[31] Failed T+545 sec during Stg 3 burn.  Failed RD-0214 steering engine, caused 
     by failed turbopump bolted attachment that caused vibration, a fuel leak, 
     and early turbopump shutdown.
[32] 4th Briz M burn cut off 24 sec early, leaving payload in 31,307 x 37,784 km 
      x 0.7deg orbit, short of planned 33,800 x 37,787 km x 0.18 deg by 
      ~50 m/s delta-v.
[33] 400th Proton launch.
[34] Failure at 490-498 seconds during third stage burn. RD-0214 Steering engine 
      turbopump failed.
 
[35] Trace Gas Orbiter and Schiaparelli lander, Mars intercept 10/16 planned. 

[36] First Phase 4 Proton.

Abbreviations
* Sites
TB = Tyuratam/Baikonur
** Orbits
LEO = Low Earth Orbit
LEO/ISS = LEO to ISS
EEO = Elliptical Earth Orbit
FTO = Failed to Orbit
GEO = Geosynchronous Orbit
GTO = Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit
HCO = Heliocentric (Solar) Orbit
MEO = Medium Earth Orbit
PAD = On-pad incident.
SUB = Suborbital
TLI = Trans Lunar Injection

Brackets [..] around orbit abbreviation indicate launch vehicle failure and show 
improper orbit achieve, or show failure to orbit.  The following links provide 
a detailed description of all Proton failures and a summary of Proton flights 
by year. 
Proton Failure Details
Proton Flight Summary by Year

 

References

Proton Mission Planners Guide, ILS, March 1999
Proton Mission Planners Guide, ILS, December 2004
Proton Mission Planners Guide, ILS, July 2009
Proton Fact Sheet, ILS, July 2007

 Last Update:  June 9, 2016