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July-September, 2015

va226.jpg (17890 bytes)Ariane 5 Orbits Two Satellites

Ariane 5 ECA L580 orbited two communication satellites from Kourou on September 30, 2015. Liftoff from ELA 3 took place at 20:30 UTC. The Arianespace VA226 mission placed 6,440 kg Sky Muster and 2,977 kg Arsat 2 into geosynchronous transfer orbit. About 28 minutes after liftoff, SS/Loral-built Sky Muster deployed first from atop a Sylda 5 dual payload carrier. INVAP of Argentina-built Arsat 2 separated several minutes later.

Sky Muster will serve Australia's government-owned NBN Co., providing high speed internet service. Arsat 2 will provide Ku and C-band communication services to Argentina.

VA226 was the fifth Ariane 5-ECA launch of the year to date.

cz3b29.jpg (22075 bytes)China Launches Navigation Satellite

China's CZ-3B/E launched the Beidou 20 navigation satellite from XiChang Satellite Launch Center on September 29, 2015. The rocket was the first to use the upgraded LC 3, a launch pad that has only hosted less powerful rockets until now.  Liftoff took place at 23:13 UTC.

Beidou 20 is a 4.2 tonne Beidou 3 series navigation satellite identified as BD-3 I2-S in some records. It was inserted into a geosynchronous transfer orbit with a 55 deg inclination and is bound for an "inclined" geosynchronous orbit that will follow a "figure eight" pattern as it moves north and south of the equator.

It was China's fifth orbital launch of September.

pslvc30.jpg (11032 bytes)PSLV Launches Space Observatory

India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) orbited the Astrosat space observatory, along with six microsatellite, from Sriharikota on September 28, 2015. The 4.5 stage PSLV-XL rocket, flying the C30 mission, lifted off from the First Launch Pad at 03:30 UTC. PSLV's fourth stage injected the payloads into a 651 x 644 km x 6 deg orbit about 22 minutes after liftoff.

The 1,513 kg Astrosat satellite is India’s first space observatory. It is equipped with four X-ray instruments and an ultraviolet telescope. Astrosat was built at ISRO's Satellite Center in Bangalore.

Six small satellites - LAPAN-A2 for Indonesia’s National Institute for Aeronautics and Space, ExactView-9 for Canada’s exactEarth, and four Lemur-2 satellites for Spire Global of the United States - also rode to orbit. All together these weighed 118 kg, with LAPAN-A2 accounting for 76 kg and ExactView 9 for 14 kg.

It was the third PSLV launch of 2015 and the fourth orbital launch of the year from Sriharikota.

cz11-1b.jpg (23897 bytes)China Debuts CZ-11

On September 25, 2015, China launched its first Chang Zheng (CZ) 11 - a four-stage solid fuel rocket - from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. CZ-11 boosted at least four small satellites into near-polar low earth orbit.

CZ-11 launched at 01:41 UTC from a canister attached to a mobile transporter/erector in a manner similar to that used by Russia's retired Start-1 launch vehicle, which was itself based on Russia's Topol ICBM. The new launch vehicle was developed as a quick-reaction orbital launcher by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT). The rocket is reportedly 20.8 meters long, and 2 meters in diameter with a 58 tonne launch mass and a 120 tonne liftoff thrust. CZ-11 may be able to lift 700 kg to sun synchronous orbit.

The test flight boosted three small “Tianwang-1 satellites and a fourth named Pujian 1 into roughly 480 km orbits at inclinations of 94.2 to 97.3 deg. One object, possibly a fourth stage with a liquid propulsion was tracked in an elliptical transfer type orbit.

rokot25.jpg (5600 bytes)Rokot Launch

A Russian Rokot/Briz KM launch vehicle orbited three Gonets 3M data relay satellites and an unidentified military satellite from Area 133 Pad 3 at Plesetsk space center on September 23, 2015. The three stage rocket lifted off at 22:00 UTC. Its Briz-KM third stage performed two burns to lift the three 282 kg Gonets satellites and the fourth satellite into roughly 1,500 km x 82.5 deg orbits.

The first Briz KM burn began about five minutes after liftoff and lasted for about 9.5 minutes to insert the vehicle into an elliptical parking orbit. The second, circulization burn began about 1.5 hours after liftoff near apogee and lasted for less than one minute. Spacecraft separation occurred shortly thereafter.

It was the year's second Rokot launch and the 25th Rokot/Briz KM launch since the type began flying in 2000.

cz6-1.jpg (13342 bytes)China's New Rocket Debuts

China successfully launched its first Chang Zheng 6 rocket from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center on September 19, 2015. The three-stage launch vehicle, powered off its new launch pad by China's new 122 tonne thrust, staged-combustion cycle YF-100 LOX/kerosene engine, carried 20 microsatellites into sun synchronous orbit during the test flight. YF-100, China's first big LOX kerosene engine, will also power the forthcoming, larger CZ-5 and CZ-7 launch vehicles.

Liftoff from LC 16 took place at 23:01 UTC. The first stage burned for about 155 seconds. The second stage, powered by a YF-115 staged combustion engine producing 18 tonnes of thrust, burned LOX/kerosene for about 290 seconds. At apogee, a small kick stage, powered by four 408 kgf thrust YF-85 hydrogen peroxide/kerosene engines, fired to circularize the orbit.

CZ-6 was developed by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC). It's 3.35 meter diameter first stage carried 76 tonnes of propellant while its 2.25 meter diameter second stage carried about 15 tonnes of propellant. The 29.237 meter tall rocket is capable of lifting more than 1,000 kg of payload into a 700 km sun synchronous orbit. Payloads ride within a 2.6 meter diameter fairing.

CZ-6 is integrated horizontally in a hangar. A large wheeled transporter/erector carries it to its flat launch pad and erects it shortly before launch.

p406.jpg (14979 bytes)Proton M/DM-03 Orbits Express AM8

A three-stage Proton M with a Blok DM-03 fourth stage successfully boosted the Express AM8 communications satellite into near-geosynchronous orbit from Baikonur Cosmodrome on September 14, 2015. It was the first success for the Proton M/DM-03 configuration after failures in 2010 and 2013. Liftoff from Area 81 Pad 24 took place at 19:00 UTC.

The RSC Energia Blok DM-03 stage holds up to 18.7 tonnes of LOX/Kerosene propellant, about 25% more than the 15 tonne capacity of precursor Blok DM-2M stages. The stage performed three burns during the more than 6.5-hour mission. The 2,100 kg satellite separated at 01:37 UTC.

Express AM8 was built by ISS Reshetnev of Russia using a communcations payload built by Thales Alenia Space of France. The satellite has 42 transponders in the Ku, C, and L-bands. It is owned by the Russian Satellite Communications Co., a state-owned Russian operator providing civilian communications services.

It was the 50th worldwide orbital launch attempt, and 47th success, of 2015.

cz2dgf9.jpg (13614 bytes)China Orbits Observation Satellite

A Chang Zheng 2D rocket boosted China's Gaofen 9 earth observation satellite into sun synchronous orbit from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center on September 14, 2015. Liftoff from Complex 43 Pad 603 took place at 04:42 UTC. After the launch, Gaofen 9 was tracked in a 617 x 664 km x 98 deg orbit.

China announced that the high-resolution optical imaging satellite will be used for "land surveying, urban planning, land ownership, road network design, crop yield estimation and disaster prevention and reduction". The official press release also noted that the satellite data could be used for "other major national strategy and national defense modernization".

It was the 23rd CZ-2D launch.  The two-stage rocket variant began flying in 2003.

cz3b28.jpg (8009 bytes)CZ-3B Launches Experimental Comsat

China's CZ-3B orbited a new satellite type, describe by China's news services as a "communication technology experimental satellite", from Xichang
satellite launch center on September 12, 2015. The enhanced CZ-3B, currently China's most powerful launch vehicle, lifted off from LC 2 at 15:42 UTC.

The rocket's liquid hydrogen-fueled upper stage inserted the satellite, possibly named "Communications Engineering Test Satellite 1" (TJSSW-1) according to industry experts, into a 201 x 35,825 km x 27 deg geosynchronous transfer orbit after a roughly half-hour mission.

The satellite will be used in part to test Ka-band technology for broadband communications.

It was the fifth CZ launch of 2015. More flights are expected soon as China enters its typically busiest launch "season".

vs12.jpg (10746 bytes)Soyuz Orbits European Navsats

A Soyuz 2-1b with a Fregat upper stage launched a pair of European Galileo navigation satellites into orbit from Kourou Space Center on September 11, 2015.  Flying the VS12 mission for Arianespace and the FOC-M3 mission for Europe, the 3.5 stage rocket lifted off from the ELS pad at 02:08 UTC to begin a 3 hour 48 minute mission that placed the FM-05 and FM-06 satellites, one weighing 715 kg and one 716 kg, into 23,522 km x 57.394 deg circular orbits.

Fregat performed two burns during the mission.  The first, completed 24 minutes after liftoff, placed the vehicle into an elliptical orbit with a 23,500 km apogee.    The second, which began about 3 hours 39 minutes into the flight, aimed the stage and spacecraft toward their insertion orbit. 

It was the second Galileo launch since a Fregat failure placed two Galileo satellites into an improper orbit on August 22, 2014. 

OHB-System and SSTL built the satellite bus and payload, respectfully, for the Galileo satellites.  After the 2014 failure, these will become the second pair of "Full Operational Capability" satellites of a planned 22 satellite constellation.

av056.jpg (12704 bytes)Atlas 5 Launches MUOS 4

The most powerful Atlas 5 variant, an Atlas 5-551 with five strap on solid motors and a five meter diameter payload fairing, lofted the fourth of five planned U.S. Navy Mobile User Objective System (MUOS 4) communications satellites into orbit from Cape Canaveral, Florida on September 2, 2015. Liftoff from Space Launch Complex 41 took place at at 10:18 UTC, providing a spectacular pre-dawn ascent as the rocket rose into high altitude sunlight. The 568 tonne rocket's Centaur upper stage fired its RL10C-1 engine three times during a nearly 3 hour mission to lift MUOS 4 toward a planned 3,819 x 35,786 km x 19.11 deg geosynchronous transfer orbit.

At 6.74 tonnes, the MUOS satellites are the heaviest known payloads launched by an Atlas 5, though the mass of several secret national security payloads launched by the ULA built rocket have never been published. Lockheed Martin Space Systems is the MUOS prime contractor. The satellites provide narrowband tactical voice and data communications and are equipped with a 14-meter diameter reflecting mesh antenna to provide links to ground-based users.

It was the 56th Atlas 5 launch and the fifth of 2015. AC-056 was the Atlas 5-551 to fly.

soytma18m.jpg (2766 bytes)Soyuz Orbits ISS Crew

A Soyuz FG rocket boosted the Soyuz TMA-18M spacecraft with three crew for the International Space Station from Baikonur Cosmodrome on September 2, 2015.  Liftoff from Area 1 Pad 5 took place at 04:37 UTC. 

On board were Russia's Sergey Volkov, Europe's Andreas Mogensen, and Kazakhstan's Aidyn Aimbetov.  Their spacecraft will take two days and 34 orbits to reach ISS.  The quicker four-orbit ascent used since 2013 was not possible due to a recent debris avoidance maneuver made by ISS.  Once aboard, the Soyuz TMA-18M crew will increase the number aboard the station to nine.

It was the year's third crewed launch, all by Soyuz. It was also the 10 orbital launch attempt by Russia's R-7 rocket during 2015.

p405.jpg (3602 bytes)Proton Returns

On August 28, 2015, Russia's Proton boosted the Inmarsat 5-F3 communications satellite toward a planned supersynchronous transfer orbit from Baikonur Cosmodrome.  The planned 15.5 hour mission was a return to flight for Khrunichev's Proton some 3.5 months after a failed May 16 launch with Mexsat 1.  The 705 tonne, four-stage Proton M/Briz M rocket lifted off from Site 200 Pad 39 at 11:44 UTC to begin a mission that included five planned Briz M upper stage burns.

Proton's RD-0124 propulsion system fired successfully during the ascent Inmarsat 5-F3 phase.  Vibration in an RD-0214 steering engine turbopump caused the May 16 failure when resulting dynamic loads caused a mounting bracket to fail, shutting down the steering engine.  Roscosmos determined that the cause was an old design flaw that allowed a slightly unbalanced turbopump shaft to create large vibrations.  To fix the problem, turbopump rotor shaft materials were altered, rotor balancing methods improved, and the turbopump mount was strengthened.

Briz M fired first to place itself into a 173 km x 51.5 deg parking orbit. It was to fire three more times during the first 4 hours 44 minutes and three orbits of the mission to aim itself toward a 475 x 65,044 km x 50.5 deg transfer orbit. After a 10.5 hour coast to apogee, Briz M was to fire a fifth time to reach a 4,341 x 65,000 km x 26.75 deg supersynchronous transfer orbit.  

Inmarsat 5-F3 is a 6.07 tonne Boeing BSS-702HP series satellite with 89 Ka-band transponders. It will provide mobile broadband network service from a geostationary position at 55 deg West longitude.

gslvd6.jpg (30472 bytes)India Launches Communications Satellite

India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) successfully launched the GSAT-6 communications satellite from Sriharikota on August 27, 2015. Liftoff from the Second Launch Pad at Satish Dhawan Space Center took place at 11:22 UTC. The 2,117 kg satellite separated into geosynchronous transfer orbit about 17 minutes later. The targeted orbit was 170 x 35,975 km x 19.95 deg.

The GSLV-D6 mission used a "Mk 2" launch vehicle with the third flight of India's indigenously developed Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS). The stage carried 12.8 metric tons (tonnes) of LH2/LOX that provided about 7.5 tonnes of thrust during its single 720 second burn.  It was the second GSLV/CUS success.

GSLV-D6 weighed 416 tonnes and stood 49.1 meters tall. Its first stage used four Vikas-powered L40H strap on boosters and an S139 solid motor core. The 2.1 m x 19.7 m strap-ons burned 42.6 tonnes of U25/N2O4 for 148.9 seconds, producing a maximum 77.4 tonnes of thrust. The 2.8 x 20.1 m core burned 138.1 tonnes of HTPB propellant for 106 seconds, producing a maximum 491 tonnes of thrust. The boosters do not jettison from the core.

The 2.8 x 11.6 m second stage Vikas engine burned 39.5 tonnes of U25/N2O4 for 150 seconds, producing a maximum of 81.4 tonnes of thrust. The payload fairing jettisoned 3 minutes 50 seconds after liftoff, during the second stage burn. GSAT-6 separated about 12 seconds after the end of the CUS burn.

GSAT-6, built by ISRO, will be used by India's military. It has S and C band payloads. The S-band payload uses a 6 meter diameter unfurlable antenna - largest ever for ISRO. The satellite's 45 kgf liquid apogee motor will burn MMH/MON-3 during a series of burns to reach geosynchronous orbit.

cz4cyg27.jpg (9236 bytes)China Orbits Spysat

China's Chang Zheng 4C orbited a Yaogan Weixing electro-optical reconnaissance satellite from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center on August 27, 2015. The three-stage hypergolic propellant-fueled rocket lifted off from LC 9 at 02:31 UTC. The satellite, identified as Yaogan 27, was boosted toward a sun synchronous low earth orbit.

The satellite, built by Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (SAST), is thought to be fifth in a series that began in 2009 and previously included Yaogan 8, 15, 19, and 22. The satellites weigh a reported 1,040 kg and operate in a roughly 1,200 km x 100.3 deg orbit.

It was the fourth CZ launch of 2015 and the second from Taiyuan.

va225.jpg (18445 bytes)Ariane 5 Lofts Satellite Pair

Ariane 5 ECA L579 launched two communication satellites into geosynchronous transfer orbit from Kourou on August 20, 2015.  Liftoff from ELA 3 took place at 20:43 UTC.

The Arianespace VA225 mission placed 5,782 kg Eutelsat 8 West B and 3,200 kg Intelsat 34 into orbit.  SS/Loral-built Eutelsat 8 West B deployed first from atop a Sylda 5 dual payload carrier.  Thales Alenia Space-built Intelsat 34 separated several minutes later. 

VA225 was the 50th consecutive Ariane 5-ECA success - the second longest ongoing success string behind only Delta 2 - and was the fourth Ariane 5 launch of 2015. 

h2b5.jpg (13250 bytes)H-2B Launches ISS Cargo

Japan's H-2B successfully orbited JAXA's H-2 Transfer Vehicle 5 (HTV 5) ISS cargo hauling spacecraft from Tanegashima's Yoshinobu Launch Pad No. 2 on August 19, 2015. After an 11:50:49 UTC liftoff and 15 minute ascent, the 531 tonne, 2.5 stage rocket placed the roughly 16.2 tonne spacecraft (named "Kounotori", or "White Stork", 5) into a 200 x 300 km x 51.6 deg insertion orbit. Kounotori 5 was expected to gradually raise its orbit to 400 km to reach the International Space Station on Monday, August 24.

Kounotori 5 carried about 5.7 tonnes of cargo, including 4.7 tonnes in the forward pressurized compartment and 1 tonne in the mid-unpressurized compartment. Cargo included food and crew supplies, scientific hardware, spare parts, a cosmic ray experiment package, spacewalk equipment, and computer parts. About 200 kg of late cargo was added to the manifest after the Falcon 9/CRS-5 launch failure.

H-2B lifted off on about 1,100 tonnes of thrust, including about 180 tonnes thrust from its twin LH2/LOX LE-7A core main engines and about 920 tonnes of thrust produced by its four SRB-A monolithic solid motors. The SRB-As ignited at liftoff and burned out 1 minute 54 seconds after liftoff. The LE-5A engines ignited about five seconds before liftoff and cut off at T+5 min 47 sec. The second stage's single LH2/LOX 14 tonne thrust LE-5B engine performed a single burn that lasted 8 minutes 19 seconds.

It was the fifth H-2B since the type began flying in 2009, the 40th H-2 family launch since 1994, and the 40th orbital attempt worldwide in 2015.

cz3by26.jpg (12332 bytes)China Orbits Navsat Pair (Updated 7/27/15)

China's Chang Zheng (Long March) 3B orbited two Beidou 3M series navigation satellites from Xichang Satellite Launch Center on July 25, 2015. The 3.5 stage rocket, topped for the first time by a Yuanzheng 1 fourth, maneuvering stage, lifted off from LC 2 at 12:29 UTC.

The satellites, named Beidou 3 M1-S and Beidou 3 M2-S, were the first third-generation medium altitude type.  They weighed about 1,014 kg each at launch.

CZ-3B's LH2/LOX third stage boosted the payloads into a 186 x 18,390 km x 54.97 deg transfer orbit. Yuanzheng 1 then fired its 660 kgf thrust UDMH/N2O4 engine to lift the satellites first into a roughly 186 x 22,000 km orbit and then a second time to circularize the orbit at 22,000 km about 3.5 hours after liftoff.  YZ-1 performed a final disposal burn to raise its orbit above the operational Beidou altitude.

d372.jpg (15245 bytes)Delta 4 Launches WGS-7

The 30th Delta 4 launch vehicle, a Delta 4M+5,4 with four solid rocket motors and a five meter diameter Delta cryogenic second stage (DCSS), lofted Wideband Global SATCOM No. 7 into supersynchronous transfer orbit from Cape Canaveral Florida on July 24, 2015. The 66.3 meter tall liquid hydrogen fueled rocket lifted off from Space Launch Complex 37B at 00:07 UTC.

It was the first Delta 4 Medium powered by an upgraded Aerojet-Rocketdyne RS-68A main engine.

DCSS performed two burns. The first placed the vehicle in a 185 x 6,852 km x 25.6 deg parking orbit about 20 minutes after liftoff. After a 9.5 minute coast, the second, 3 minute 19 second burn pushed the 5.987 tonne Boeing 702 series satellite into a 440 x 66,838 km x 24.2 deg transfer orbit. Spacecraft separation occurred 42 minutes after liftoff.

WGS-7 will provide 500 MHz range, X-band, and 1 GHz range (Ka-band) communication links for the Australian Defence Force on a mission that was funded by Australia. It can support up to 3.6 Gbps data transmission rates.

It was only the second Delta 4 launch of 2015 and the first in four months.

tma17m.jpg (13441 bytes)Soyuz Launches New ISS Crew

A Soyuz FG launch vehicle successfully boosted the Soyuz TMA-17M spacecraft with three crew for the International Space Station from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on July 22, 2015. Liftoff from Area 1 Pad 5 took place at 21:02 UTC. Soyuz TMA-17M flew a fast track six hour approach to the station before docking at 02:45 UTC on July 23.

The crew included Russia's Oleg Kononenko, Japan's Kimiya Yui, and NASA's Kjell Lindgren.

One of the Soyuz TMA-17M spacecraft's two solar arrays failed to deploy after orbital insertion. It finally shook lose and deployed when the vehicle docked to ISS.

It was the second crewed orbital launch of 2015.

crs7c.jpg (8495 bytes)Helium Bottle Support Eyed in Falcon 9 Failure

On July 20, 2015, Elon Musk, head of SpaceX, announced preliminary investigation results of the company's June 28 Falcon 9/CRS-7 launch failure. Musk said that a strut supporting one of the high pressure composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) helium bottles inside the second stage liquid oxygen (LOX) tank is believed to have failed as vehicle acceleration passed 3.2 Gs, allowing the bottle to break free. As a result of the failure, enough helium was released to rapidly overpressurize the tank. The bottles hold helium at 5,500 psi.

Mr. Musk also revealed that the CRS-7 Dragon capsule, which broke away from the disentegrating rocket, transmitted data until it fell below the horizon and could have been saved if a parachute could have been ejected. Flight software did not have a mode for such a contingency, but Musk said that future versions would have such software.

The 2 foot long, one inch thick strut failed at only 20% of its 10,000 pound rated strength. During its investigation, SpaceX tested a large number of the struts and found a few that failed below the rated strength due to metallurgical weaknesses. SpaceX will replace the struts, which are also used in first stages, with stronger struts from a different manufacturer.  The company will also improve its quality control processes to assure strut strength.

Musk said that the next launch will not occur until September at the earliest, depending on reviews by NASA, the FAA, the U.S. Air Force, and commercial customers.

va224.jpg (14192 bytes)50th Ariane 5 ECA Orbits Two Satellites

Ariane 5 ECA L578 launched two satellites into geosynchronous transfer orbit from Kourou on July 15, 2015. Liftoff from ELA 3 took place at 21:42 UTC. The Arianespace VA224 mission orbited the 2,043 kg MSG 4 (Meteosat Second Generation) weather satellite and the 5,565 kg Star One C4 communications satellite. Star One C4 deployed first from the top of a Sylda dual payload carrier.

MSG 4 is a spin-stabilized satellite built by Thales Alenia Space for Europe's Eumetsat. Star One C4 was built by Space Systems/Loral with 48 Ku-band transponders for Brazil's Embratel Star One.

It was the 50th Ariane 5 ECA and the 80th Ariane 5.

av055.jpg (16463 bytes)55th Atlas 5 Orbits GPS 2F-10

The 55th Atlas 5 rocket, a two-stage 401 variant, orbited U.S. Air Force Global Positioning Satellite 2F-10 from Cape Canaveral SLC 41 on July 15, 2015. Liftoff occurred at 15:36 UTC to begin a 3.5 hour mission that placed the 1.63 tonne navigation satellite into a 20,200 km x 55 deg circular orbit.

Atlas climbed on a northeast azimuth from the Cape, paralleling the Eastern Seaboard of the United States. Centuar performed a 762 second first burn as it flew up the coast and halfway across the Atlantic to lift itself into an elliptical 176 x 20,279 km x 55 deg transfer orbit. After coasting for just over 3 hours to first apogee south of Australia, Centaur burned again for about 87 seconds to complete the mission.

GPS 2F-10 was the 10th of 12 planned Lockheed Martin 2F series satellites. The company will also build GPS-3 series satellites that are expected to begin flying in 2017.

It was the fourth Atlas 5 launch of 2015 and the first from Cape Canaveral since the June 28, 2015 Falcon 9 CRS-7 launch failure.

pslvc28.jpg (10080 bytes)PSLV Launches Five Satellites

India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) orbited five British-built satellites from Sriharikota on July 10, 2015. The 4.5 stage PSLV-XL rocket, flying the C28 mission, lifted off from the First Launch Pad at 16:28 UTC. The fourth stage injected the payloads into a 647 km x 98.06 sun synchronous orbit about 17 minutes 20 seconds after liftoff.

Three Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) satellites were the primary payload for this launch. The Surrey Satellite Technology SSTL-300 satellites, identified as DMC3-1, DMC3-2, and DMC3-3, each weighed 447 kg at liftoff. The satellites are capable of 1-meter resolution imaging.

Two small technology demonstration satellites also rode to orbit. They included CBNT 1, a 91 kg satellite built by SSTL to test earth observation methods, and DeorbitSail, a 7 kg cubeSat that will deploy a 16 square meter sail to test drag generating methods.

progm28m.jpg (9664 bytes)Soyuz Orbits Crucial ISS Cargo Ship

Russia's Soyuz U launched Progress M-28M, a vital unmanned cargo spacecraft for the International Space Station, from Baikonur Cosmodrome on July 3, 2015. The 2.5 stage kerosene fueled rocket lifted off from Area 1 Pad 5 at 04:55 UTC. Progress M-28M separated about nine minutes later into a 193 x 245 km x 51.66 deg orbit from which it will maneuver over two days to rendezvous and dock with the station.

Progress weighed about 6.9 tonnes at liftoff including about 2.4 tonnes of dry cargo, food, rocket propellant, water and oxygen to the space station. The cargo is badly needed in the wake of three ISS cargo ship failures - one each by Antares/Cygnus, Soyuz/Progress, and Falcon 9/Dragon - during the past eight months. The last cargo success had been Dragon CRS-6 on April 14, 2015, one of five cargo successes by Dragon and Progress since the October 28, 2014 Antares/Cygnus Orb-3 launch failure.

Long-running Soyuz U was in the process of being phased out in favor of Soyuz 2.1a for Progress launches, but a Soyuz 2.1a failed to properly orbit Progress M-27M on April 28, 2015. That failure involved a problem at spacecraft separation that sent the Progress into an uncontrollable spin. An investigation pointed toward some type of unexpected, damaging pogo, vibration, or structural resonance issue during the final seconds of the upper stage burn that was unique to the Soyuz 2-1a/Progress M-27M combination.

It was the eighth R-7 launch, and seventh success, of 2015.